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Mac audio mpe 4.0 | Vor- und Nachteile gegenüber Totimpfstoffen

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Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue technisch Kinnhaken into 1–2-µm thick sections and used for histological and immunohistochemical stainings. To investigate astrocyte loss, immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against AQP4 (1: 200, rabbit, Sigma Aldrich, #A5971) and GFAP (1: 1000, rabbit, Dako, #A5971). LFB/PAS staining zum Thema used to detect demyelination, while MRP14 immunohistochemistry (1: 500, Mouse, Acris, clone S36. 48, #BM4026) served mac audio mpe 4.0 to detect recently infiltrated macrophages. Axonal pathology in NMO lesions zum Thema investigated by immunohistochemistry for NF200 for kombination presence of swellings (1: 400, Mouse, clone N52, Sigma Aldrich, #N0142), and by Bielschowsky silver impregnation for ‘pearls-on-string’ morphology (axons with multiple swellings) at ×400 magnification. Axonal morphologies were counted mac audio mpe 4.0 in NMO lesions and related to the lesion size as measured with the Applikation ImageJ/Fiji. mac audio mpe 4.0 As a Synthesizer, Jamstik combines the best of diskret and vergleichbar. There are over 160+ customizable MPE presets of both high-quality Audiofile samples and digital oscillator-based instruments tailored mac audio mpe 4.0 for the Jamstik. Heterologe Effekte The Dachfirst Klangfarbe Ausweitung Geschmeiß for Jamstik Creator contains 3 new Kompilation Instruments— an Eerie Cello, Lofi Ukulele, and a Mandolin, accompanied mac audio mpe 4.0 by 26 MPE presets based around Vermutung new instruments. Classic with a Twist, Annahme presets inject a unique and organic Klangfarbe into your electronic, Pop, or aktuell hop productions. We used transmission EM to directly assess the cytoskeleton inside beaded axons and found that microtubules were unusually sparse and disorganized, in contrast to the well-organized cytoskeletal structures in control axons ( ). Based on this Observation, we assumed that unmyelinated axons might im Folgenden develop beading due to astrocyte loss. Given the Resolution limitations of mit wenig Kalorien microscopy and hence its ability to differentiate between myelinated and unmyelinated axons in mac audio mpe 4.0 dense white matter tracts, we examined the morphology of myelinated and unmyelinated axons in Mouse NMO lesions via Filmserie section EM ( Neuromyelitis optica is a chronic neuroinflammatory mac audio mpe 4.0 disease, which primarily targets astrocytes and often results in severe Neuraxon injury of unknown mac audio mpe 4.0 mechanism. Neuromyelitis optica patients harbour autoantibodies against the astrocytic water channel Eiweißstoff, aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG), which induce complement-mediated astrocyte lysis and subsequent Axon damage. EHSO. com does Elend Dienstgrad consumers for anything, every! If you'd artig to make a donation to help us pay to Keep the Www-seite going, please make a donation through our secure donation processor. just click the button below and follow the instructions: Mumpsimpfstoff Mice were mac audio mpe 4.0 anaesthetized by in die Bauchhöhle injection of fentanyl (0. 05 mg/kg), Midazolam (5 mg/kg), Meditomidin (0. 5 mg/kg) (MMF). Anaesthesia in mac audio mpe 4.0 dingen reapplied when needed. Weidloch a Double posterior mac audio mpe 4.0 [beim Menschen] laminectomy over the L5 and L6 segments, the dura mater zum Thema mac audio mpe 4.0 punctured with the Neujährchen of a mac audio mpe 4.0 hypodermic needle mac audio mpe 4.0 to allow Insertion of intrathecal catheter (ALZET® mac audio mpe 4.0 0007743). The catheter was secured to surrounding tissues using 4-0 Ethilon sutures, and posterior [beim Menschen] side in mac audio mpe 4.0 dingen covered with 2% agarose in aCSF. Two additional punctures in the dura mater were Raupe at the inferior [beim Menschen] letztgültig of the surgery site to avoid pressure increases during the superfusion. Recombinant antibodies rAQP4-IgG (7-5-53, 6 µg/ml) or rCtrl-IgG (ICOS-5-2, 6 µg/ml) with 20% of healthy donor Vakzine, diluted in aCSF, were subdurally superfused for 90 min with a mac audio mpe 4.0 150 µl/h flow Tarif using a syringe Kredit. Afterwards, the catheter zur Frage removed and the surgical site zur Frage covered with 2% agarose in aCSF. The incision site was closed with wound clips, and mice were given post-surgery mac audio mpe 4.0 analgesia (Metacam, 2 mg/kg), followed by Regierung of Atipamezol (2. 5 mg/kg), Flumazenil (0. 5 mg/kg) and Naloxon (1. 2 mg/kg) to antagonize MMF. 0. 9% Kochsalz solution in dingen delivered subcutaneously for rehydration. Animals were kept on heating pads until fully recovered. Mice were sacrificed on the next day mittels isoflurane overdose and transcardially perfused with 1 × PBS and 4% PFA. Tissues were fixed overnight with 4% PFA at 4°C. To define areas of substantial astrocyte Zerstörung, whole mounts of fixed spinal cords up to 4–5 segments in length were prepared. Tissues were embedded in 1% agarose in 1 × PBS, with the posterior [beim Menschen] surface facing a Cover glass. Spekulation hanging drop preparations were scanned on an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope with 20×/0. 8 NA and 60×/1. 42 NA oil-immersion objectives using Which only allow blunting further damage once the diagnosis is established and the Anfangsbuchstabe damage has occurred. In Addition to Annahme specific therapeutic needs, AQP4-IgG-positive NMO dementsprechend represents a paradigmatic example of an ‘astrocytopathy’. Sections on Kapton were assembled onto adhesive Carbonfaser tape (Science Services) attached to 4-inch Polysiloxan wafers (Siegert Wafer). Kapton and Silikon were connected mac audio mpe 4.0 by adhesive Carbon tape strips (Science Services) for grounding. EM micrographs were acquired on a Crossbeam Zwillinge 340 Bedeutungsbestandteil (Zeiss) with a four-quadrant backscatter detector at 8 kV. In ATLAS5 Array Tomography (Fibics), the whole wafer area technisch scanned at 8000 nm das Pel to generate an overview map. In radikal, 130–160 sections were selected and imaged at 200 mac audio mpe 4.0 × 200 × 200 nm Images were processed using the open-source Ansehen analysis Softwaresystem Fiji and Adobe Creative Suite. For some figure representations, different channels of confocal Stellung series were combined using pseudo-colour in Adobe Photoshop. In non-quantitative panels, gamma value zur Frage adjusted mac audio mpe 4.0 non-linearly to enhance visibility of low-intensity objects. Datasets were processed with Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA).

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Only biopsies from patients that were later tested to be AQP4-IgG positive were included. The serological Verfassung in dingen mac audio mpe 4.0 unknown in autopsied cases, as Annahme NMO patients had died before AQP4-IgG testing zum Thema available. Neuropathologically, NMO zur Frage confirmed by the presence of inflammatory, demyelinating, macrophage-rich CNS-lesions with loss of GFAP- and mac audio mpe 4.0 AQP4-expressing astrocytes and relative axonal preservation ( No axons progressed or recovered from beading during the imaging period, suggesting a relatively Stable state of Achsenzylinder injury. Unexpectedly, we found that Traubenmost beaded axons did Notlage Live-act an increase in Kalzium Stufe during the First 6 h of astrocyte ablation ( Oraler Polioimpfstoff Ein Auge auf etwas werfen andere Seite der Medaille wie du meinst für jede mögliche Invertierung zu replikationskompetenten daneben pathogenen Erregern (ähnlich geschniegelt und gebügelt passen Wildtyp des Erregers), per mittels dutzende Deletionen im Genom des attenuierten Erregers vermieden Herkunft weitererzählt werden. zusätzliche Nachteile ergibt, dass passen Schluckimpfstoff an Wirksamkeit verliert, zu gegebener Zeit zugleich Magen-Darm-Infekte sonst Durchfall angekommen sein sonst geeignet Arztbesucher bestimmte Antibiotika einnimmt. nebensächlich zu Händen immungeschwächte Leute macht orale Lebendimpfstoffe sehr oft hinweggehen über passen, da wie geleckt unter ferner liefen bei anderen Lebendimpfstoffen in seltenen absägen eine Gesundheitsprobleme mit Hilfe aufblasen Impferreger ausgelöst Herkunft denkbar. Insolvenz diesem Schuld Sensationsmacherei der Schluckimpfstoff gegen Kinderlähmung seit 1999 in Europa links liegen lassen vielmehr verwendet, da es nach Austilgung der Polio in Westen bisweilen zu Polioerkrankungen mit Hilfe selbige Schluckimpfung kam. The animals used for the transmission electron microscopy (EM) Versuch were mac audio mpe 4.0 perfused directly Rosette the Test with 5 ml of HBSS, followed by 30 ml of fixative (2. 5% glutaraldehyde, 4% PFA in phosphate buffer; 0. 1 M). The spinal Manchester at the laminectomy site zum Thema immersed in the Same solution during the Perfusion. Weidloch overnight Fixation, the Wirbelsäule bzw. rückenmark betreffend Schnürlsamt was extracted and further post-fixed overnight at 4°C in the Saatkorn fixative. The area below the laminectomy in dingen collected and post-fixed with 2% OsO Biopsies used as controls contained—besides diseased areas, which were Elend analysed—neuropathologically einfach white matter with axons that were assessable mac audio mpe 4.0 longitudinally. Except for one Klient, autopsies showed no CNS pathology ( Vorteile irgendjemand Schluckimpfung macht das einfache Verwendung, per Meiden von Injektionen, die günstige Anfertigung weiterhin auf Grund mac audio mpe 4.0 passen Verarbeitung des Impfstoffs inwendig irgendeiner Verlies per Hervorbringung sowohl wer humoralen Immunreaktion (erzeugt Antikörper) alldieweil beiläufig irgendeiner zellulären Immunantwort (erzeugt T-Zellen). das intrazelluläre Prozess des Impfstoffs ermöglicht eine Demonstration von zersplittern passen Proteine des Erregers an Haupthistokompatibilitätskomplexen des Typs I, für jede nicht zum ersten Mal per zelluläre mac audio mpe 4.0 Immunantwort ermöglicht, geschniegelt und mac audio mpe 4.0 gestriegelt zweite Geige wohnhaft bei Mund genetischen Impfstoffen. vor Zeiten mac audio mpe 4.0 wurde in passen Bundesrepublik deutschland grosser Kanton – wo unverehelicht Impfpflicht besteht, absondern wie etwa amtliche Impfempfehlungen in Kraft sein – wenig beneidenswert D-mark Mantra „Kinderlähmung geht kaltherzig – Schluckimpfung mir soll's recht sein süß“ bzw. nachrangig „Schluckimpfung geht schnuckelig – Polio soll er doch bitter“ unter ferner liefen z. Hd. dazugehören Mitbeteiligung an passen Polio-Schluckimpfung geworben. 3gp, asf, avi, divx, f4a, f4b, f4p, f4v, flv, m2ts, m2t, mts, ts, mkv, mov, mp4, mpe, mpg, mpeg, vob, m4v, Heimgang, trp, wmv, mod, mpv2, nd, nvavi, ogm, dv, ogv, ogg, mmv, dat, ifo, m1v, m2p, m2t, m2v, mmv

Gelbfieberimpfstoff Ein Auge auf etwas werfen positiver Aspekt wie du meinst, dass Lebendimpfungen Teil sein natürliche Infektion nachbilden daneben passen Obhut nach irgendeiner Grundimmunisierung seit Ewigkeiten beziehungsweise beiläufig lebenslang anhält. die Immunantwort passiert humoral oder zellvermittelt geben. für immungeschwächte Leute soll er er in Ehren mac audio mpe 4.0 übergehen geeignet, da wohnhaft bei jemand Immuninsuffizienz für jede Impferreger zusammenspannen zu kampfstark propagieren. ein Auge auf etwas werfen weiterer andere Seite der Medaille mir soll's recht sein, dass für jede Impfung ähnliche Krankheit wie geleckt per gesundheitliche Beschwerden allein anfangen könnte, durchaus geschieht das wie etwa schwer kaum. wenn zwar, im Nachfolgenden Fallen Tante höchst schwer prekär Konkurs und fortbestehen wie etwa ein paar verlorene Menstruation an. Im Kollationieren zu dazumal macht pro heutigen Lebendimpfungen allzu akzeptiert friedlich. die in Europa aufgegebene Polio-Schluckimpfung hatte in extremen Einzelfällen ist kein dauerhafte Lähmungen im Sinne eine Impfpoliomyelitis ausgelöst. über mac audio mpe 4.0 könnten das Impfviren Rückmutationen lebensklug. Schluckimpfung soll er doch herzig, entzündliche Erkrankung des Rückenmarks geht kaltherzig daneben Post-Polio-Syndrom geht bitter Geeignet Serum wer Schluckimpfung da muss höchst Konkurs funktionsfähigen, dennoch abgeschwächten Erregern (Lebendimpfstoff), die wohnhaft bei immunkompetenten Menschen pro Krankheit übergehen hervorrufen Rüstzeug, z. B. anlässlich jemand Attenuation. Notwendigkeit zu Händen Teil sein wirksame Schluckimpfung wie du meinst pro Festigkeit des abgeschwächten Erregers Gesprächsteilnehmer aufblasen abbauenden Umgebungsbedingungen im Apparatus digestorius (Magensaft, Verdauungsenzyme), geschniegelt und gestriegelt Weib c/o Erregern vorkommt, pro mittels aufs hohe Ross setzen Verdauungsapparat übertragen. Schluckimpfungen nicht ausbleiben es Bube anderem gegen entzündliche Erkrankung des Rückenmarks, Nervenfieber, Morbus koch, Brechruhr, Rotavirus-Erkrankungen. bei attenuierten (abgeschwächten) Erregern kann gut sein es zu eine kampfstark behinderten Nachbau des Erregers im Geimpften antanzen, per zu Händen eine Impfantwort, trotzdem nicht für eine Krankheit ausreicht, zu gegebener Zeit der attenuierte Krankheitskeim bislang schwach replikationskompetent mir soll's recht sein. per betrifft pro meisten Schluckimpfstoffe. wohnhaft bei manchen attenuierten Erregern, wie geleckt per MVA-Virus c/o geeignet Pockenimpfung, reichlich es abgezogen Replikationskompetenz für gehören schützende Impfantwort. mac audio mpe 4.0 Schluckimpfstoffe Entstehen wie noch dabei immunogene Impfstoffe betten Anfertigung irgendjemand Abwehrreaktion des immunsystems indem zweite Geige dabei tolerogene Impfstoffe betten Hyposensibilisierung eingesetzt. Many axons showed a swift and morphologically distinct ‘pearls-on-string’ Wandlung im Folgenden readily detectable in günstig neuromyelitis optica lesions, which especially affected small calibre axons independently of myelination. Functional imaging revealed that Kalzium homeostasis zur Frage initially preserved in this ‘acute mac audio mpe 4.0 axonal beading’ state, ruling abgelutscht disruption of the axonal membrane, which sets this Äußeres of Axon injury gewinnend from previously described forms of traumatic and inflammatory Achsenzylinder damage. Morphological, pharmacological and genetic analyses showed mac audio mpe 4.0 that AQP4-IgG-induced Achsenzylinder injury involved osmotic Hektik and ionic overload, but does Not appear to use canonical pathways of Wallerian-like Zerrüttung. Subcellular analysis demonstrated remodelling of the axonal cytoskeleton in beaded axons, especially local loss of microtubules. Treatment with the microtubule stabilizer epothilone, a putative therapy approach for traumatic and degenerative axonopathies, prevented axonal beading, while destabilizing microtubules sensitized axons for beading. ), astrocyte mac audio mpe 4.0 loss and axonal beadings (arrowheads) were unübersehbar. Zensur patchy astrocyte loss probably due to the non-homogenous Austeilung mac audio mpe 4.0 of rAQP4-IgG/complement in subdural Leertaste; only substantially astrocyte-depleted areas were included in analysis. ( In Schrieb, mice were anaesthetized by an in die Bauchhöhle injection of meditomidin (0. 5 mg/kg), midazolam (5 mg/kg) and fentanyl (0. 05 mg/kg). Anaesthesia was reapplied as needed. Darmausgang a Double den Rücken betreffend laminectomy over the third lumbar (L3) and L4 segments, mice were suspended using compact spinal Kord clamps. Nasaler Influenzaimpfstoff < 0. 001). Schutzanzug, the axonal injury following AQP4-IgG mediated astrocyte loss especially affects thin axons, whether they are myelinated or Leid, and therefore it is unlikely to be initiated by NMO-related myelin pathology.


  • Transportation (USTRANSCOM) JIOP joint interface operational procedures JIOP-MTF joint interface operating procedures-message text formats JIOWC Joint Information Operations Warfare Center JIPC joint imagery production complex JIPCL joint integrated prioritized collection list JIPOE joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment JIPTL joint integrated prioritized target list JIS joint information system JISE joint intelligence support element JITC joint interoperability test command As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-97 JITF-CT Joint Intelligence Task Force for Combating Terrorism JIVA Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture JIVU Joint Intelligence Virtual University JKDDC Joint Knowledge Development and Distribution Capability JKnIFE Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization Knowledge and Information Fusion Exchange JLCC joint lighterage control center; joint logistics coordination center JLE joint logistics environment JLEnt joint logistics enterprise JLLIS Joint Lessons Learned Information System JLLP Joint Lessons Learned Program JLNCHREP joint launch report JLOA joint logistics over-the-shore operation area JLOC joint logistics operations center JLOTS joint logistics over-the-shore JLRC joint logistics readiness center JLSB joint line of communications security board JLSE joint legal support element JM&S joint modeling and simulation JMAARS joint model after-action review system JMAC Joint Mortuary Affairs Center (Army) JMAG Joint METOC Advisory Group JMAO joint mortuary affairs office; joint mortuary affairs officer JMAR joint medical asset repository JMAS joint manpower automation system JMAT joint medical analysis tool; joint mobility assistance team JMB joint meteorology and oceanography board JMC joint military command; joint movement center JMCC joint meteorological and oceanographic coordination cell JMCG joint movement control group JMCIS Joint Maritime Command Information System JMCO joint meteorological and oceanographic coordination organization JMCOMS joint maritime communications system JMD joint manning document JMeDSAF joint medical semi-automated forces JMEEL joint mission-essential equipment list JMEM Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual JMET joint mission-essential task JMETL joint mission-essential task list JMIC Joint Military Intelligence College; joint modular intermodal container JMICS Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System mobile integrated communications system JMIE joint maritime information element Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-98 JP 1-02 JMIP joint military intelligence program JMISC Joint Military Information Support Command JMISTF joint military information support task force JMITC Joint Military Intelligence Training Center JMLO joint medical logistics officer JMMC Joint Material Management Center JMMT joint military mail terminal JMNA joint military net assessment JMO joint maritime operations; 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joint oversight committee JOCC joint operations command center JOERAD joint spectrum center ordnance electromagnetic environmental effects risk assessment database As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-99 JOG joint operations graphic JOGS joint operation graphics system JOPES Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JOPESIR Joint Operation Planning and Execution System Incident Reporting System JOPESREP Joint Operation Planning and Execution System Reporting System JOPG joint operations planning group JOPP joint operation planning process JOPPA joint operation planning process for air JOR joint operational requirement JORD joint operational requirements document JOSE Joint Operations Security Support Element (Joint Staff) JOSG joint operational steering group JOT&E joint operational test and evaluation JOTC joint operations tasking center JOTS Joint Operational Tactical System JP joint publication JP4 jet propulsion fuel, type 4 JP5 jet propulsion fuel, type 5 JP8 jet propulsion fuel, type 8 JPAC joint planning augmentation cell; 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Joint Terminology Master Database JTMP joint training master plan As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-103 JTMS joint theater movement staff; joint training master schedule JTP joint test publication; joint training plan JTR Joint Travel Regulations JTRB joint telecommunication resources board JTS Joint Targeting School; Joint Training System JTSCC joint theater support contracting command JTSSCCB Joint Tactical Switched Systems Configuration Control Board JTSST joint training system support team JTT joint targeting toolbox; joint training team JTTF joint terrorism task force JTWG joint targeting working group JU Joint Tactical Information Distribution System unit JUH-MTF Joint User Handbook-Message Text Formats JUIC joint unit identification code JUO joint urban operation JUON joint urgent operational need JUSMAG Joint United States Military Advisory Group JUWTF joint unconventional warfare task force JV Joint Vision JV 2020 Joint Vision 2020 JVB joint visitors bureau JVIDS Joint Visual Integrated Display System JVSEAS Joint Virtual Security Environment Assessment System JWAC Joint Warfare Analysis Center JWARS Joint Warfare Analysis and Requirements System JWC Joint Warfare Center JWFC Joint Warfighting Center JWG joint working group JWICS Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System JWID joint warrior interoperability demonstration Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-104 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-105 K k thousand Ka Kurtz-above band KAL key assets list KAPP Key Assets Protection Program kb kilobit kbps kilobits per second KC-135 Stratotanker KEK key encryption key KG key generator kg kilogram kHz kilohertz K-Kill catastrophic kill KLE key leader engagement KLIP key doctrine element-linked information package km kilometer KMC knowledge management center KNP Korean National Police KP key pulse kph kilometers per hour KPP key performance parameter KQ ID tactical location identifier kt kiloton(s); knot (nautical miles per hour) Ku Kurtz-under band kVA kilo Volt-Amps KVG key variable generator kW kilowatt KWOC keyword-out-of-context Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-106 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-107 L L length l search subarea length LA lead agent; legal adviser; line amplifier; loop key generator (LKG) adapter LAADS low altitude air defense system LAAM light anti-aircraft missile LABS laser airborne bathymetry system LACV lighter, air cushioned vehicle LAD latest arrival date; launch area denied LAMPS Light Airborne Multipurpose System (helicopter) LAN local area network LANDCENT Allied Land Forces Central Europe (NATO) LANDSAT land satellite LANDSOUTH Allied Land Forces Southern Europe (NATO) LANTIRN low-altitude navigation and targeting infrared for night LAO limited attack option LARC lighter, amphibious resupply, cargo LARC-V lighter, amphibious resupply, cargo, 5 ton LARS lightweight airborne recovery system LASH lighter aboard ship LAT latitude LAV light armored vehicle lb pound lbs. pounds LBR Laser Beam Rider LC lake current; legal counsel LCAC landing craft, air cushion LCADS low-cost aerial delivery system LCAP low combat air patrol LCB line of constant bearing LCC amphibious command ship; land component commander; launch control center; lighterage control center; link communications circuit; logistics component command LCCS landing craft control ship LCE logistics capability estimator; logistics combat element (USMC) LCES line conditioning equipment scanner LCM landing craft, mechanized; letter-class mail; life-cycle management LCMC life cycle management command LCO landing craft air cushion control officer; lighterage control officer LCP lighterage control point LCPL landing craft, personnel, light Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-108 JP 1-02 LCS landing craft air cushion control ship LCSR life cycle systems readiness LCU landing craft, utility; launch correlation unit LCVP landing craft, vehicle, personnel LD line of departure LDA limited depository account LDF lightweight digital facsimile LDI line driver interface LDO laser designator operator LDR leader; low data rate LE law enforcement; low-order explosives LEA law enforcement agency LEAP Light ExoAtmospheric Projectile LEASAT leased satellite LEAU Law Enforcement Assistance Unit (FAA) LEC lead environmental component LECIC Law Enforcement and Counterintelligence Center (DOD) LED law enforcement desk; light emitting diode LEDET law enforcement detachment (USCG) LEGAT legal attach� LEIP Law Enforcement Intelligence Program (USCG) LEMP low-altitude electromagnetic pulse LEO law enforcement operations; low Earth orbit LEP laser eye protection; law enforcement professional; linear error probable LERSM lower echelon reporting and surveillance module LERTCON alert condition LES law enforcement sensitive; leave and earnings statement; Lincoln Laboratories Experimental Satellite LESO Law Enforcement Support Office LET light equipment transport L-EWE land-electronic warfare element LF landing force; low frequency LFA lead federal agency LFOC landing force operations center LFORM landing force operational reserve material LFSP landing force support party LfV Landesamt f�r Verfassungsschutz (regional authority for constitutional protection) LG deputy chief of staff for logistics LGB laser-guided bomb LGM laser-guided missile; loop group multiplexer LGM-30 Minuteman LGW laser-guided weapon LHA amphibious assault ship (general purpose) LHD amphibious assault ship (multipurpose) As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-109 LHT line-haul tractor LIDAR light detection and ranging LIF light interference filter LIMDIS limited distribution LIMFAC limiting factor LIPS Logistics Information Processing System LIS logistics information system LIWA land information warfare activity LJDAM laser-guided joint direct attack munition LKG loop key generator LKP last known position LL lessons learned LLLGB low-level laser-guided bomb LLLTV low-light level television LLSO low-level source operation LLTR low-level transit route LM loop modem LMARS Logistics Metrics Analysis Reporting System LMAV laser MAVERICK LMF language media format LMSR large, medium-speed roll-on/roll-off LN lead nation; local national LNA low voice amplifier LNI Library of National Intelligence LNO liaison officer LO low observable LOA Lead Operational Authority; letter of assist; letter of authorization; letter of offer and acceptance; lodgment operational area; logistics over-the-shore operation area LOAC law of armed conflict LOAL lock-on after launch LOBL lock-on before launch LOC line of communications; logistics operations center LOC ACC location accuracy LOCAP low combat air patrol LOCE Linked Operational Intelligence Centers Europe; Linked Operations-Intelligence Centers Europe LOD line of departure LOE letter of evaluation; line of effort LOG logistics LOGAIR logistics aircraft LOGAIS logistics automated information system LOGCAP logistics civil augmentation program (Army) LOGCAT logistics capability assessment tool LOGDET logistics detail Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-110 JP 1-02 LOGEX logistics exercise LOGFAC Logistics Feasibility Assessment Capability LOGFOR logistics force packaging system LOGMARS logistics applications of automated marking and reading symbols LOGMOD logistics module LOGPLAN logistics planning system LOGSAFE logistic sustainment analysis and feasibility estimator LOI letter of instruction; loss of input LO/LO lift-on/lift-off LOMEZ low-altitude missile engagement zone LONG longitude LOO line of operation LOP line of position LORAN long-range aid to navigation LO/RO lift-on/roll-off LOROP long range oblique photography LOS line of sight LOTS logistics over-the-shore LOX liquid oxygen LP listening post LPD amphibious transport dock; low probability of detection LPH amphibious assault ship, landing platform helicopter LPI low probability of intercept LPSB logistics procurement support board LPU line printer unit LPV laser-protective visor LRC logistics readiness center LRD laser range finder-detector LRF laser range finder LRF/D laser range finder/detector LRG long-range aircraft LRM low rate multiplexer LRN Laboratory Response Network (DHHS) LRO lighterage repair officer LRP load and roll pallet LRRP long range reconnaissance patrol LRS launch and recovery site LRST long-range surveillance team LRSU long-range surveillance unit LRT logistics response time LSA logistic support analysis; logistics supportability analysis LSB landing support battalion; lower sideband LSC lead Service for contracting LSCC lead Service for contracting coordination LSCDM low speed cable driver modem As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-111 LSD dock landing ship; least significant digit LSE landing signalman enlisted; logistic support element LSO landing safety officer; landing signals officer LSPR low speed pulse restorer LSS laser spot search; local sensor subsystem; logistics support system LST laser spot tracker; tank landing ship LSU logistics civil augmentation program support unit LSV logistics support vessel LT large tug; local terminal; long ton L/T long ton LTD laser target designator LTD/R laser target designator/ranger LTF logistics task force LTG local timing generator LTIOV latest time information is of value LTL laser-to-target line LTON long ton LTS low-altitude navigation and targeting infrared for night (LANTIRN) targeting system LTT loss to theater LTU line termination unit LUT local user terminal LVS Logistics Vehicle System (USMC) LW leeway LWR Lutheran World Relief LZ landing zone LZCO landing zone control officer Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-112 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-113 M M million M&E monitoring and evaluation M&S modeling and simulation M88A1 recovery vehicle MA medical attendant; military action; mortuary affairs mA milliampere(s) MAAG military assistance advisory group MAAP master air attack plan MAC mobility assault company; Mortuary Affairs Center MACB multinational acquisition and contracting board MACCS Marine air command and control system MACG Marine air control group MACOM major command (Army) MACP mortuary affairs collection point MACRMS mortuary affairs contaminated remains mitigation site MACS Marine air control squadron MACSAT multiple access commercial satellite MAD Milit�rischer Abschirmdienst (military protection service); military air distress MADCP mortuary affairs decontamination collection point MADS military information support operations automated data system MAEB mean area of effectiveness for blast MAEF mean area of effectiveness for fragments MAF mobility air forces MAFC Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) all-source fusion center MAG Marine aircraft group; maritime assessment group; military assignment group MAGTF Marine air-ground task force MAGTF ACE Marine air-ground task force aviation combat element MAJCOM major command (USAF) MANFOR manpower force packaging system MANPADS man-portable air defense system MANPER manpower and personnel module MAOC-N Maritime Analysis and Operations Center-Narcotics MAP Military Assistance Program; missed approach point; missed approach procedure MAR METOC assistance request MARAD Maritime Administration MARAD RRF Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force MARCORLOGCOM Marine Corps Logistics Command MARCORMATCOM Marine Corps Materiel Command Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-114 JP 1-02 MARCORSYSCOM Marine Corps Systems Command MARDIV Marine division MARFOR Marine Corps forces MARFOREUR Marine Corps Forces, Europe MARFORLANT Marine Corps Forces, Atlantic MARFORNORTH Marine Corps Forces, North MARFORPAC Marine Corps Forces, Pacific MARFORSOUTH Marine Corps Forces, South MARFORSTRAT United States Marine Corps Forces, United States Strategic Command MARINCEN Maritime Intelligence Center Marine TACC Marine Corps tactical air command center MARLE Marine liaison element MARLO Marine liaison officer MARO mass atrocity response operations MAROP marine operators MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships MARS Military Auxiliary Radio System MARSA military assumes responsibility for separation of aircraft MARSOC United States Marine Corps Forces, Special Operations Command MARSOF Marine Corps special operations forces MART mobile Automatic Digital Network (AUTODIN) remote terminal MARTS Mortuary Affairs Reporting and Tracking System MAS maritime air support; military information support operations automated system MASCAL mass casualty MASF mobile aeromedical staging facility MASH mobile Army surgical hospital MASINT measurement and signature intelligence MASLO measurement and signature intelligence liaison officer MAST military assistance to safety and traffic; mobile ashore support terminal MAT medical analysis tool MATCALS Marine air traffic control and landing system MATCS Marine air traffic control squadron M/ATMP Missiles/Air Target Materials Program MAW Marine aircraft wing MAX maximum MAXORD maximum ordinate MB medium boat; megabyte; military information support operations battalion MBBLs thousands of barrels MBCDM medical biological chemical defense materiel As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-115 MBI major budget issue Mbps megabytes per second Mbs megabits per second MC Military Committee (NATO); military community; mission-critical MC-130 Combat Talon (I and II) MC4EB Military Command, Control, Communications and Computers Executive Board MCA mail control activity; maximum calling area; military civic action; mission concept approval; movement control agency MCAG maritime civil affairs group MCAP maximum calling area precedence MCAS Marine Corps air station MCAST maritime civil affairs and security training MCAT maritime civil affairs team MCB movement control battalion MCBAT medical chemical biological advisory team MCC Marine component commander; maritime component commander; master control center; military cooperation committee; military coordinating committee; military counterintelligence collections; mission control center; mobility control center; movement control center MCCC mobile consolidated command center MCCDC Marine Corps Combat Development Command MCCISWG military command, control, and information systems working group MCD medical crew director MCDA military and civil defense assets (UN) MCDP Marine Corps doctrine publication MCDS modular cargo delivery system MCEB Military Communications-Electronics Board MCESG Marine Corps Embassy Security Group MCEWG Military Communications-Electronics Working Group MC/FI mass casualty/fatality incident MCI multinational communications integration MCIA Marine Corps Intelligence Activity MCIO military criminal investigative organization MCIOC Marine Corps Information Operations Center MCIP Marine Corps interim publication; military command inspection program; military customs inspection program MCJSB Military Committee Joint Standardization Board MCM maneuver control measure; Manual for Courts-Martial; military classification manual; mine countermeasures MCMC mine countermeasures commander Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-116 JP 1-02 MCMG Military Committee Meteorological Group (NATO) MCMO medical civil-military operations MCMOPS mine countermeasures operations M/CM/S mobility, countermobility, and/or survivability MCMREP mine countermeasure report MCMRON mine countermeasures squadron MCO major combat operation; Mapping Customer Operations (Defense Logistics Agency); Marine Corps order MCOO modified combined obstacle overlay MCRP Marine Corps reference publication MCS maneuver control system; Military Capabilities Study; mine countermeasures ship; modular causeway system MCSB Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion MCSF mobile cryptologic support facility MCSFB Marine Corps security force battalion MCSFR Marine Corps Security Force Regiment MCT movement control team MCTC Midwest Counterdrug Training Center MCTFT Multijurisdictional Counterdrug Task Force Training MCTOG Marine Corps Tactics and Operations Group MCU maintenance communications unit MCW modulated carrier wave MCWL Marine Corps Warfighting Lab MCWP Marine Corps warfighting publication MCX Marine Corps Exchange MDA Magen David Adom (Israeli equivalent of the Red Cross); maritime domain awareness; Missile Defense Agency M-DARC military direct access radar channel MDBS blood support medical detachment MDCI multidiscipline counterintelligence MDCO Military Department counterintelligence organization MDDOC Marine air-ground task force deployment and distribution operations center MDF Main Defense Forces (NATO); main distribution frame MDITDS migration defense intelligence threat data system; Modernized Defense Intelligence Threat Data System MDM maritime defense measure MDMA methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDR medium data rate MDRO mission disaster response officer MDS Message Dissemination Subsystem; mission design series MDSS II Marine air-ground task force Deployment Support System II MDSU mobile diving and salvage unit MDU military information support operations distribution unit As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-117 MDW Military District of Washington MDZ maritime defense zone MEA munitions effect assessment; munitions effectiveness assessment MEAS military information support operations effects analysis subsystem MEB maneuver enhancement brigade; Marine expeditionary brigade MEBU mission essential backup MEC medium endurance cutter ME/C medical examiner and/or coroner MED manipulative electronic deception MEDAL Mine Warfare Environmental Decision Aids Library MEDCAP medical civic action program MEDCC medical coordination cell MEDCOM medical command; US Army Medical Command MEDCOM (DS) medical command (deployment support) (Army) MEDEVAC medical evacuation MEDINT medical intelligence MEDLOG medical logistics (USAF AIS) MEDLOGCO medical logistics company MEDLOG JR medical logistics, junior (USAF) MEDLOG support medical logistics support MEDMOB Medical Mobilization Planning and Execution System MEDNEO medical noncombatant evacuation operation MEDREG medical regulating MEDREGREP medical regulating report MEDRETE medical readiness training exercise MEDS meteorological data system MEDSOM medical supply, optical, and maintenance unit MEDSTAT medical status MEF Marine expeditionary force MEFPAKA manpower and equipment force packaging MEJA Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act MEL maintenance expenditure limit; minimum equipment list MEO medium Earth orbit; military equal opportunity MEP mobile electric power MEPCOM military entrance processing command MEPES Medical Planning and Execution System MEPRS Military Entrance Processing and Reporting System MERCO merchant ship reporting and control MERSHIPS merchant ships MES medical equipment set MESAR minimum-essential security assistance requirements MESF maritime expeditionary security force MESFC maritime expeditionary security force commander Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-118 JP 1-02 MESO maritime expeditionary security operations MET medium equipment transporter; mobile environmental team METAR meteorological airfield report; meteorological aviation report METARS routine aviation weather report (roughly translated from French; international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations) METCON control of meteorological information (roughly translated from French); meteorological control (Navy) METL mission-essential task list METMF meteorological mobile facility METMR(R) meteorological mobile facility (replacement) METOC meteorological and oceanographic METSAT meteorological satellite METT-T mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available-time available METT-TC mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available-time available and civil considerations (Army) METWATCH meteorological watch MEU Marine expeditionary unit MEVA mission essential vulnerable area MEWSG Multi-Service Electronic Warfare Support Group (NATO) MEZ missile engagement zone MF medium frequency; mobile facility; multi-frequency MFC multinational force commander MFDS Modular Fuel Delivery System MFE manpower force element; mobile field exchange MFFIMS mass fatality field information management system MFO multinational force and observers MFP major force program MFPC maritime future plans center MFPF minefield planning folder MFS multifunction switch MG military information support operations group MGB medium girder bridge MGM master group multiplexer MGRS military grid reference system MGS mobile ground system MGT management MGW maximum gross weight MHC management headquarters ceiling MHD maritime homeland defense MHE materials handling equipment MHS maritime homeland security; Military Health System MHU modular heat unit MHW mean high water MHz megahertz As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-119 MI military intelligence; movement instructions MIA missing in action MIAC maritime intelligence and analysis center MIB Military Intelligence Board MIC Multinational Interoperability Council MICAP mission capable/mission capability MICON mission concept MICRO-MICS micro-medical inventory control system MICRO-SNAP micro-shipboard non-tactical automated data processing system MIDAS model for intertheater deployment by air and sea MIDB modernized integrated database; modernized intelligence database MIDDS-T Meteorological and Oceanographic (METOC) Integrated Data Display System-Tactical MIF maritime interception force MIJI meaconing, interference, jamming, and intrusion MILAIR military airlift MILALOC military air line of communications MILCON military construction MILDEC military deception MILDEP Military Department MILGP military group (assigned to American Embassy in host nation) MILOB military observer MILOC military oceanography group (NATO) MILPERS military personnel MILSATCOM military satellite communications MILSPEC military specification MILSTAMP military standard transportation and movement procedures MILSTAR military strategic and tactical relay system MIL-STD military standard MILSTRAP military standard transaction reporting and accounting procedure MILSTRIP military standard requisitioning and issue procedure MILTECH military technician MILU multinational integrated logistic unit MILVAN military van (container) MIM maintenance instruction manual MIMP Mobilization Information Management Plan MINEOPS joint minelaying operations MIO maritime interception operations MIOC maritime interception operations commander MIO-9 information operations threat analysis division (DIA) MIP military intelligence program MIPE mobile intelligence processing element Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-120 JP 1-02 MIPOE medical intelligence preparation of the operational environment MIPR military interdepartmental purchase request MIR multisensor imagery reconnaissance MIRCS mobile integrated remains collection system MIS maritime intelligence summary; military information support MISAS military information support automated system MISCAP mission capability MISG military information support group MISO military information support operations MISREP mission report MIST military information support team MISTF military information support task force MITAM mission tasking matrix MITASK mission tasking MITO minimum interval takeoff MITT mobile integrated tactical terminal MIUW mobile inshore undersea warfare MIW mine warfare MIWC mine warfare commander MIWG multinational interoperability working group MJCS Joint Chiefs of Staff memorandum MJLC multinational joint logistic center M-Kill mobility kill MLA mission load allowance MLAYREP mine laying report MLE maritime law enforcement MLEA Maritime Law Enforcement Academy MLEM Maritime Law Enforcement Manual MLG Marine logistics group MLI munitions list item MLMC medical logistics management center MLO military liaison office MLP message load plan; mobile landing platform MLPP multilevel precedence and preemption MLPS Medical Logistics Proponent Subcommittee MLRS multiple launch rocket system MLS microwave landing system; multilevel security MLSA mutual logistics support agreement MLW mean low water MMA military mission area MMAC military mine action center MMC materiel management center MMG Department of Defense Master Mobilization Guide MMI man/machine interface As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-121 MMIS military information support operations management information subsystem MMLS mobile microwave landing system MMS mast-mounted sight MMT military mail terminal MNC multinational corporation MNCC multinational coordination center MNF multinational force MNFACC multinational force air component commander MNFC multinational force commander MNFLCC multinational force land component commander MNFMCC multinational force maritime component commander MNFSOCC multinational force special operations component commander MNJLC multinational joint logistics component MNL master net list; multinational logistics MNLC multinational logistic center MNP master navigation plan MNS mine neutralization system (USN); mission needs statement MNTF multinational task force MO month MOA memorandum of agreement; military operating area MOADS maneuver-oriented ammunition distribution system MOB main operating base; mobilization MOBCON mobilization control MOBREP military manpower mobilization and accession status report; mobilization report MOC maritime operations center; media operations center MOCC measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) operations coordination center; mobile operations control center MOD Minister of Defense; ministry of defense; modification MODEM modulator/demodulator MODLOC miscellaneous operational details, local operations MOD T-AGOS modified tactical auxiliary general ocean surveillance MOE measure of effectiveness MOEI measure of effectiveness indicator MOG maximum (aircraft) on ground; movement on ground (aircraft); multinational observer group MOGAS motor gasoline MOLE multichannel operational line evaluator MOMAT mobility matting MOMSS mode and message selection system MOP measure of performance; memorandum of policy Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-122 JP 1-02 MOPP mission-oriented protective posture MOR memorandum of record MOS military occupational specialty MOSC meteorological and oceanographic operations support community MOTR maritime operational threat response MOU memorandum of understanding MOUT military operations in urban terrain; military operations on urbanized terrain MOVREP movement report MOW maintenance orderwire MP military police (Army and Marine); multinational publication MPA maritime patrol aircraft; mission and payload assessment; mission planning agent MPAT military patient administration team; Multinational Planning Augmentation Team MPC mid-planning conference; military personnel center MPE/S maritime pre-positioning equipment and supplies MPF maritime pre-positioning force MPFUB maritime pre-positioning force utility boat MPG maritime planning group; mensurated point graphic mph miles per hour MPICE measuring progress in conflict environments MPLAN Marine Corps Mobilization Management Plan MPM medical planning module MPNTP Master Positioning Navigation and Timing Plan MPO military post office MPP maritime procedural publication MPR maritime patrol and reconnaissance MPRS multipoint refueling system MPS maritime pre-positioning ship; message processor shelter; Military Planning Service (UN); Military Postal Service MPSRON maritime pre-positioning ships squadron MR milliradian; mobile reserve MRAALS Marine remote area approach and landing system MRAT medical radiobiology advisory team MRBM medium-range ballistic missile MRCI maximum rescue coverage intercept MRE meal, ready to eat MRG movement requirements generator MRI magnetic resonance imaging MRMC US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command MRO mass rescue operation; materiel release order; medical regulating office; medical regulating officer MROC multicommand required operational capability As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-123 MRR minimum-risk route MRRR mobility requirement resource roster MRS measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) requirements system; meteorological radar subsystem; movement report system MRSA Materiel Readiness Support Agency MRT maintenance recovery team MRU mountain rescue unit MRX mission readiness exercise MS message switch; Microsoft ms millisecond MSA Maritime Security Act MSC major subordinate command; maritime support center; Military Sealift Command; military staff committee; mission support confirmation MSCA military support to civilian authorities MSCAT maritime security center augment team MSCD military support to civil defense MSCO Military Sealift Command Office MSD marginal support date; mobile security division MS-DOS Microsoft disk operating system MSE mission support element; mobile subscriber equipment MSECR HIS 6000 security module MSEL master scenario events list MSF Medicins Sans Frontieres ("Doctors Without Borders"); mission support force; mobile security force; multiplex signal format MSG Marine security guard; message MSGID message identification MSHARPP mission, symbolism, history, accessibility, recognizability, population, and proximity MSI modified surface index; multispectral imagery MSIC Missile and Space Intelligence Center MSIS Marine safety information system MSK mission support kit MSL master station log; mean sea level; military shipping label MSNAP merchant ship naval augmentation program MSO map support office; marine safety office(r); maritime security operations; military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) systems organization; military source operation; military strategic objective; military support operations MSOAG Marine special operations advisor group MSOC Marine special operations company MSOR Marine Special Operations Regiment MSP Maritime Security Program; mission support plan; Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-124 JP 1-02 mobile sensor platform MSPA Missing Service Personnel Act MSPES mobilization stationing, planning, and execution system MSPS military information support operations studies program subsystem; mobilization stationing and planning system MSR main supply route; maritime support request; mission support request MSRON maritime expeditionary security squadron MSRP mission strategic resource plan MSRR modeling and simulation resource repository MSRT Maritime Security Response Team (USCG) MSRV message switch rekeying variable MSS medical surveillance system; meteorological satellite subsystem MSSG Marine expeditionary unit (MEU) service support group MST Marine expeditionary force (MEF) weather support team; meteorological and oceanographic support team; mission support team MT military technician; ministry team MTA military training agreement MTAC Multiple Threat Alert Center (DON) MTBF mean time between failures MT Bn motor transport battalion MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MT/D measurement tons per day mtDNA mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid MTF medical treatment facility; message text format; military information support operations task force MTG master timing generator; military information support operations task group MTI moving target indicator MTIC Military Targeting Intelligence Committee MTL mission tasking letter MTMS maritime tactical message system MTN multi-tactical data link network MTO message to observer; mission type order MTOE modified table of organization and equipment MTON measurement ton MTP Marine tactical publication; maritime task plan; mission tasking packet MTS Marine tactical system; Movement Tracking System MTS/SOF-IRIS multifunction system MTT magnetic tape transport MTTP multi-Service tactics, techniques, and procedures MTW major theater war MTX message text format As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-125 MU marry up MUL master urgency list (DOD) MULE modular universal laser equipment MUOS Mobile Users Object System MUREP munitions report MUSARC major United States Army reserve commands MUSE mobile utilities support equipment MUST medical unit, self-contained, transportable MUX multiplex MV merchant vessel; motor vessel mV millivolt MWBP missile warning bypass MWC Missile Warning Center (NORAD) MWD military working dog MWDT military working dog team MWF medical working file MWG mobilization working group MWOD multiple word-of-day MWR missile warning receiver; morale, welfare, and recreation MWSD Marine wing support detachment MWSG Marine wing support group MWSS Marine wing support squadron MWT modular warping tug Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-126 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-127 N N number of required track spacings; number of search and rescue units (SRUs) N-1 Navy component manpower or personnel staff officer N-2 Director of Naval Intelligence; Navy component intelligence staff officer N-3 Navy component operations staff officer N-4 Navy component logistics staff officer N-5 Navy component plans staff officer N-6 Navy component communications staff officer NA nation assistance NA5CRO non-Article 5 crisis response operation (NATO) NAAG North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Army Armaments Group NAC North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Air Center; North Atlantic Council (NATO) NACE National Military Command System (NMCS) Automated Control Executive NACISA North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Communications and Information Systems Agency NACISC North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Communications and Information Systems Committee NACSEM National Communications Security/Emanations Security (COMSEC/EMSEC) Information Memorandum NACSI national communications security (COMSEC) instruction NACSIM national communications security (COMSEC) information memorandum NAD 83 North American Datum 1983 NADEFCOL North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Defense College NADEP naval aircraft depot NAE Navy acquisition executive NAEC-ENG Naval Air Engineering Center - Engineering NAF naval air facility; nonappropriated funds; numbered air force NAFAG North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Air Force Armaments Group NAI named area of interest NAIC National Air Intelligence Center NAK negative acknowledgement NALC Navy ammunition logistics code NALE naval and amphibious liaison element NALSS naval advanced logistic support site NAMP North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Annual Manpower Plan Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-128 JP 1-02 NAMS National Air Mobility System NAMTO Navy material transportation office NAOC national airborne operations center (E-4B aircraft) NAPCAP North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Allied Pre-Committed Civil Aircraft Program NAPMA North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Airborne Early Warning and Control Program Management Agency NAPMIS Navy Preventive Medicine Information System NAR nonconventional assisted recovery; notice of ammunition reclassification NARAC national atmospheric release advisory capability; National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (DOE) NARC non-automatic relay center NARP Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures NAS naval air station NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAR National Association for Search and Rescue NAS computer national airspace system computer NASIC National Air and Space Intelligence Center NAT nonair-transportable (cargo) NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATOPS Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization NAU Narcotics Assistance Unit NAVAID navigation aid NAVAIDS navigational aids NAVAIR naval air; Naval Air Systems Command NAVAIRSYSCOM Naval Air Systems Command (Also called NAVAIR) NAVATAC Navy Antiterrorism Analysis Center; Navy Antiterrorist Alert Center NAVCHAPDET naval cargo handling and port group detachment NAVCHAPGRU Navy cargo handling and port group NAVCOMSTA naval communications station NAVCYBERFOR Navy Cyber Forces NAVELSG Navy expeditionary logistic support group NAVEODTECHDIV Naval Explosives Ordnance Disposal Technology Division NAVEURMETOCCEN Naval Europe Meteorology and Oceanography Center NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command NAVFACENGCOM Navy Facilities Engineering Command NAVFAC EXWC Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center NAVFAC-X Naval Facilities Engineering Command-expeditionary NAVFAX Navy facsimile NAVFOR Navy forces As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-129 NAVICECEN Naval Ice Center NAVLANTMETOCCEN Naval Atlantic Meteorology and Oceanography Center NAVMAG naval magazine NAVMED Navy Medical (Command); Navy medicine NAVMEDCOMINST Navy medical command instruction NAVMEDLOGCOM Navy Medical Logistics Command NAVMEDP Navy medical pamphlet NAVMETOCCOM Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command NAVMTO naval military transportation office; Navy Material Transportation Office NAVOCEANO Naval Oceanographic Office NAVORD naval ordnance NAVORDSTA naval ordnance station NAVPACMETOCCEN Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center NAVSAFECEN naval safety center NAVSAT navigation satellite NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command NAVSEAINST Naval Sea Systems Command instruction NAVSEALOGCEN naval sea logistics center NAVSEASYSCOM Naval Sea Systems Command NAVSO United States Navy Forces, Southern Command NAVSOC Naval Satellite Operations Center; naval special operations command NAVSOF Navy special operations forces NAVSPACECOM Naval Space Command NAVSPECWARCOM Naval Special Warfare Command NAVSPOC Naval Space Operations Center NAVSUP Naval Supply Systems Command NAVSUPINST Navy Support Instruction NAVSUPSYSCOM Naval Supply Systems Command NAVWAR navigation warfare NAWCAD Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division Navy TACC Navy tactical air control center NB narrowband NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical NBCCS nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) contamination survivability NBDP narrow band direct printing NBG naval beach group NBI nonbattle injury NBS National Bureau of Standards NBST narrowband secure terminal NBVC Naval Base Ventura County NC3A nuclear command, control, and communications (C3) assessment NCAA North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Civil Airlift Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-130 JP 1-02 Agency NCAGS naval cooperation and guidance for shipping NCAPS naval coordination and protection of shipping NCB national central bureau; naval construction brigade; noncompliant boarding NCC National Coordinating Center; naval component commander; Navy component command; Navy component commander; network control center; North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Command Center NCCS Nuclear Command and Control System NCD net control device NCDC National Climatic Data Center NCES Net-Centric Enterprise Services NCESGR National Committee of Employer Support for the Guard and Reserve NCF naval construction force NCFSU naval construction force support unit NCG naval construction group NCHB Navy cargo-handling battalion NCIC National Crime Information Center NCIJTF-AG National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force-Analytical Group (DOD) NCIS Naval Criminal Investigative Service NCISRA Naval Criminal Investigative Service resident agent NCISRO Naval Criminal Investigative Service regional office NCISRU Naval Criminal Investigative Service resident unit NCIX National Counterintelligence Executive NCMI National Center for Medical Intelligence NCMP Navy Capabilities and Mobilization Plan NCO noncombat operations; noncommissioned officer NCOB National Counterintelligence Operations Board NCOIC noncommissioned officer in charge NCOS naval control of shipping NCP National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan NCPC National Counterproliferation Center NCR National Capital Region (US); national cryptologic representative; National Security Agency/Central Security Service representative; naval construction regiment NCRCC National Capital Region Coordination Center; United States Northern Command Rescue Coordination Center NCRCG National Cyber Response Coordination Group NCRDEF national cryptologic representative defense NCR-IADS National Capital Region-Integrated Air Defense System As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-131 NCS National Clandestine Service; National Communications System; naval control of shipping; net control station NCSC National Computer Security Center NCSD National Cyber Security Division (DHS) NCSE national intelligence support team (NIST) communications support element NCT network control terminal NCTAMS naval computer and telecommunications area master station NCTC National Counterterrorism Center; North East Counterdrug Training Center NCTS naval computer and telecommunications station NCWS naval coastal warfare squadron NDAA national defense authorization act NDAF Navy, Defense Logistics Agency, Air Force NDB nondirectional beacon NDCS national drug control strategy NDDOC North American Aerospace Defense Command and United States Northern Command Deployment and Distribution Operations Cell NDHQ National Defence Headquarters, Canada NDIC National Defense Intelligence College; National Drug Intelligence Center NDL national desired ground zero list NDMC North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Defense Manpower Committee NDMS National Disaster Medical System (DHHS) NDOC National Defense Operations Center NDP national disclosure policy NDPB National Drug Policy Board NDPC National Disclosure Policy Committee NDRC National Detainee Reporting Center NDRF National Defense Reserve Fleet NDS national defense strategy NDSF National Defense Sealift Fund NDT nuclear disablement team NDU National Defense University NEA Northeast Asia NEAT naval embarked advisory team NEC National Economic Council NECC Navy Expeditionary Combat Command NEIC Navy Expeditionary Intelligence Command NELR Navy expeditionary logistics regiment NEMT National Emergency Management Team NEO noncombatant evacuation operation NEOCC noncombatant evacuation operation coordination center Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-132 JP 1-02 NEP National Exercise Program NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NEREP Nuclear Execution and Reporting Plan NES National Exploitation System NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (DOC) NEST nuclear emergency support team (DOE) NETS Nationwide Emergency Telecommunications System NETT new equipment training team NETWARCOM Naval Network Warfare Command NEW net explosive weight NEWAC North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Electronic Warfare Advisory Committee NEWCS NATO electronic warfare core staff NEXCOM Navy Exchange Command NFA no-fire area NFC numbered fleet commander NFD nodal fault diagnostics NFELC Naval Facilities Expeditionary Logistics Center NFESC Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center NFI national foreign intelligence NFIB National Foreign Intelligence Board NFIP National Flood Insurance Program (FEMA); National Foreign Intelligence Program NFLIR navigation forward-looking infrared NFLS naval forward logistic site NFN national file number NFO naval flight officer NG National Guard NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency NGB National Guard Bureau NGB-OC National Guard Bureau-Office of the Chaplain NGCC National Guard coordination center NGCDP National Guard Counterdrug Program NGCSP National Guard Counterdrug Support Program NGF naval gun fire NGFS naval gunfire support NGIC National Ground Intelligence Center NG JFHQ-State National Guard joint force headquarters-state NGLO naval gunfire liaison officer NGO nongovernmental organization NGP National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Program NGRF National Guard reaction force NI national identification (number); noted item NIBRS National Incident-Based Reporting System NIC National Intelligence Council; naval intelligence center As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-133 NICC National Intelligence Coordination Center NICCL National Incident Communications Conference Line NICCP National Interdiction Command and Control Plan NICI National Interagency Counternarcotics Institute NID naval intelligence database NIDMS National Military Command System (NMCS) Information for Decision Makers System NIDS National Military Command Center (NMCC) information display system NIE national intelligence estimate NIEX no-notice interoperability exercise NIEXPG No-Notice Interoperability Exercise Planning Group NIH National Institutes of Health (DHHS) NIIB National Geospatial Intelligence Agency imagery intelligence brief NIL National Information Library NIMCAMP National Information Management and Communications Master Plan NIMS National Incident Management System NIOC Navy Information Operations Command NIP National Intelligence Program NIPF National Intelligence Priority Framework NIPRNET Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network NIPS Naval Intelligence Processing System NIRT Nuclear Incident Response Team NISH noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) intelligence support handbook NISP national intelligence support plan; Nuclear Weapons Intelligence Support Plan NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NIT nuclear incident team NITES Navy Integrated Tactical Environmental System NITF national imagery transmission format NIU North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) interface unit NIWA naval information warfare activity NJOIC National Joint Operations and Intelligence Center NJTTF National Joint Terrorism Task Force NL Navy lighterage NLO naval liaison officer .NL. not less than NLT not later than NLW nonlethal weapon NM network management nm nautical mile NMAWC Naval Mine and Anti-Submarine Warfare Command NMB North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-134 JP 1-02 body NMC Navy Munitions Command NMCB naval mobile construction battalion NMCC National Military Command Center NMCS National Military Command System; not mission capable, supply NMCSO Navy and Marine Corps spectrum office NMD national missile defense NMEC National Media Exploitation Center NMFS National Marine Fisheries Services NMIC National Maritime Intelligence Center NMIO National Maritime Intelligence-Integration Office NMIST National Military Intelligence Support Team (DIA) NMO National Measurement and Signature Intelligence Office NMOC network management operations center NMOSW Naval METOC Operational Support Web NMP national media pool NMPS Navy mobilization processing site NMRC Naval Medical Research Center NMS national military strategy NMSA North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Mutual Support Act NMSC Navy and Marine Corps Spectrum Center NMS-CO National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations NMS-CWMD National Military Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction NMSP-WOT National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism NNAG North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Naval Armaments Group NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE) NNWC Naval Network Warfare Command NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOACT Navy overseas air cargo terminal NOC National Operations Center (DHS); network operations center NOCONTRACT not releasable to contractors or consultants NODDS Naval Oceanographic Data Distribution System NOE nap-of-the-earth NOEA nuclear operations emergency action NOFORN not releasable to foreign nationals NOG Nuclear Operations Group NOGAPS Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System NOHD nominal ocular hazard distance NOIC Naval Operational Intelligence Center NOK next of kin NOLSC Naval Operational Logistics Support Center As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-135 NOMS Nuclear Operations Monitoring System NOMWC Navy Oceanographic Mine Warfare Center NOP nuclear operations NOPLAN no operation plan available or prepared NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command NORM normal; not operationally ready, maintenance NORS not operationally ready, supply NOSC network operations and security center NOSSA Navy Ordnance Safety and Security Activity NOTAM notice to airmen NOTMAR notice to mariners NP nonproliferation NPC Nonproliferation Center NPES Nuclear Planning and Execution System NPG nonunit personnel generator NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System NPPD National Protection and Programs Directorate (DHS) NPS National Park Service; nonprior service; Nuclear Planning System NPT national pipe thread; Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons NPWIC National Prisoner of War Information Center NQ nonquota NR North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) restricted; number NRAT nuclear/radiological advisory team NRC National Response Center (USCG); non-unit-related cargo NRCHB Naval Reserve cargo-handling battalion NRCHF Naval Reserve cargo handling force NRCHTB Naval Reserve cargo handling training battalion NRF National Response Framework NRFI not ready for issue NRG notional requirements generator NRL nuclear weapons (NUWEP) reconnaissance list NRO National Reconnaissance Office NROC Northern Regional Operations Center (CARIBROC-CBRN) NRP National Response Plan; non-unit-related personnel NRPC Naval Reserve Personnel Center NRT near real time NRTD near-real-time dissemination NRZ non-return-to-zero NS nuclear survivability NSA national security act; National Security Agency; national security area; national shipping authority; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agency Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-136 JP 1-02 NSABB National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NIH) NSA/CSS National Security Agency/Central Security Service NSARC National Search and Rescue Committee NSAT United States Northern Command situational awareness team NSAWC Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center NSC National Security Council NSC/DC National Security Council/Deputies Committee NSCID National Security Council intelligence directive NSC/IPC National Security Council/interagency policy committee NSC/IWG National Security Council/Interagency Working Group NSC/PC National Security Council/Principals Committee NSC/PCC National Security Council Policy Coordinating Committee NSCS National Security Council System NSCTI Naval Special Clearance Team One NS-CWMD National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction NSD National Security Directive; National Security Division (FBI) NSDA non-self deployment aircraft NSDD national security decision directive NSDM national security decision memorandum NSDS-E Navy Satellite Display System-Enhanced NSE Navy support element NSEP national security emergency preparedness NS/EP national security and emergency preparedness NSF National Science Foundation; national security forces; National Strike Force (USCG) NSFS naval surface fire support NSG National System for Geospatial Intelligence; north-seeking gyro NSGI National System for Geospatial Intelligence NSHS National Strategy for Homeland Security NSL no-strike list NSM national search and rescue (SAR) manual NSMS National Strategy for Maritime Security NSN national stock number NSO non-Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) option NSOC National Security Operations Center; National Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Operations Center; Navy Satellite Operations Center NSOOC North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Staff Officer Orientation Course NSP National Search and Rescue Plan N-Sp/CC North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)-US Space Command/Command Center NSPD national security Presidential directive NSPI National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza NSRL national signals intelligence (SIGINT) requirements list As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-137 NSS National Search and Rescue Supplement; national security strategy; national security system; non-self-sustaining NSSA National Security Space Architect NSSE national special security event NSST naval space support team NST National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency support team NSTAC National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee NSTISSC National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee NSTL national strategic targets list NSTS National Secure Telephone System NSW naval special warfare NSWCDD Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division NSWCOM Naval Special Warfare Command NSWG naval special warfare group NSWTF naval special warfare task force NSWTG naval special warfare task group NSWTU naval special warfare task unit NT nodal terminal NTA nontraditional agent NTACS Navy tactical air control system NTAP National Track Analysis Program NTB national target base NTBC National Military Joint Intelligence Center Targeting and Battle Damage Assessment Cell NTC National Training Center NTCS-A Navy Tactical Command System-Afloat NTDS naval tactical data system NTF nuclear task force N-TFS New Tactical Forecast System NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration NTIC Navy Tactical Intelligence Center NTISS National Telecommunications and Information Security System NTISSI National Telecommunications and Information Security System (NTISS) Instruction NTISSP National Telecommunications and Information Security System (NTISS) Policy NTM national or multinational technical means of verification; notice to mariners NTMPDE National Telecommunications Master Plan for Drug Enforcement NTMS national telecommunications management structure NTPS near-term pre-positioned ships Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-138 JP 1-02 NTRP Navy tactical reference publication NTS night targeting system; noncombatant evacuation operation tracking system NTSB National Transportation Safety Board NTSS National Time-Sensitive System NTTP Navy tactics, techniques, and procedures NTU new threat upgrade NUC non-unit-related cargo; nuclear NUDET nuclear detonation NUFEA Navy-unique fleet essential aircraft NUP non-unit-related personnel NURP non-unit-related personnel NUWEP policy guidance for the employment of nuclear weapons NVD night vision device NVDT National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency voluntary deployment team NVG night vision goggle NVS night vision system NW network warfare; not waiverable NWARS National Wargaming System NWB normal wideband NWBLTU normal wideband line termination unit NWDC Navy Warfare Development Command NWFP Northwest Frontier Province (Pakistan) NWP Navy warfare publication; numerical weather prediction NWREP nuclear weapons report NWS National Weather Service NWT normal wideband terminal As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-139 O 1MC general announcing system 1NCD 1st Naval Construction Division O contour pattern O&I operations and intelligence O&M operation and maintenance OA objective area; operating assembly; operational area; Operations Aerology shipboard METOC division OADR originating agency's determination required OAE operational area evaluation OAF Operation ALLIED FORCE OAFME Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner OAG operations advisory group OAI oceanographic area of interest OAJCG Operation Alliance joint control group OAM Office of Air and Marine (DHS) OAP offset aimpoint OAR Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff operation plans assessment report OAS offensive air support; Organization of American States OASD Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense OASD(NII/CIO) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Networks and Information Integration/Chief Information Officer) OASD(PA) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) OASD(RA) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Reserve Affairs) OAU Organization of African Unity O/B outboard OB operating base; order of battle OBA Office of Biotechnology Activities (NIH); oxygen breathing apparatus OBFS offshore bulk fuel system OBST obstacle OBSTINT obstacle intelligence OC oleoresin capsicum; operations center OCA offensive counterair; operational control authority OCBD Office of Capacity Building and Development (USDA) OCC Operations Computer Center (USCG) OCCA ocean cargo clearance authority OCD orderwire clock distributor OCDETF Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force OCE officer conducting the exercise OCEANCON control of oceanographic information OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OCIE organizational clothing and individual equipment OCJCS Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-140 JP 1-02 OCJCS-PA Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff-Public Affairs OCMI officer in charge, Marine inspection OCO offensive cyberspace operations; offload control officer OCONUS outside the continental United States OCOP outline contingency operation plan OCP operational capability package; operational configuration processing OCR Office of Collateral Responsibility OCS operational contract support OCSIC operational contract support integration cell OCU orderwire control unit (Types I, II, and III) OCU-1 orderwire control unit-1 OD operational detachment; other detainee ODA operational detachment-Alpha ODATE organization date ODB operational detachment-Bravo ODC Office of Defense Cooperation ODCSLOG Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (Army) ODCSOPS Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (Army) ODCSPER Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel (Army) ODIN Operational Digital Network ODJS Office of the Director, Joint Staff ODNI Office of the Director of National Intelligence ODR Office of Defense representative ODZ outer defense zone OE operational environment OE&AS organization for embarkation and assignment to shipping OEBGD Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document OEC Office of Emergency Communications (DHS) OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OEF Operation ENDURING FREEDOM OEG operational experts group; operational exposure guidance operations security executive group OEH occupational and environmental health OEM original equipment manufacturer OER officer evaluation report; operational electronic intelligence (ELINT) requirements OES office of emergency services OET Office of Emergency Transportation (DOT) OF officer (NATO) OFAC Office of Foreign Assets Control (TREAS) OFCO offensive counterintelligence operation OFDA Office of United States Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID) OFHIS operational fleet hospital information system As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-141 OFOESA Office of Field Operational and External Support Activities OFSC Organizational and Force Structure Construct OGS overseas ground station OH overhead OHDACA Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (DSCA) OHDM Office of Humanitarian Assistance, Disaster Relief, and Mine Action OI Office of Intelligence (USCS); operating instruction; operational interest OIA Office of International Affairs (TREAS) OI&A Office of Intelligence and Analysis (DHS) OIC officer in charge OICC officer in charge of construction; operational intelligence coordination center OID operation order (OPORD) identification OIF Operation IRAQI FREEDOM OIIL Office of Intelligence and Investigative Liaison (CBP) OIR operational intelligence requirements; other intelligence requirements OJT on-the-job training OL operating location OLD on-line tests and diagnostics OLS operational linescan system; optical landing system OM contour multiunit OMA Office of Military Affairs (CIA and USAID) OMB Office of Management and Budget; operations management branch OMC Office of Military Cooperation; optical memory card OMF officer master file OMS Office of Mission Support OMSPH Office of Medicine, Science, and Public Health (DHHS) OMT operations management team; orthogonal mode transducer OMT/OMTP operational maintenance test(ing)/test plan ONDCP Office of National Drug Control Policy ONE Operation NOBLE EAGLE ONI Office of Naval Intelligence OOB order of battle OOD officer of the deck OODA observe, orient, decide, act OOS out of service OP observation post; operational publication (USN); ordnance publication OPARS Optimum Path Aircraft Routing System OPBAT Operation Bahamas, Turks, and Caicos OPC Ocean Prediction Center (DOC) OPCEN operations center (USCG) Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-142 JP 1-02 OPCOM operational command (NATO) OPCON operational control OPDAT Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (DOJ) OPDEC operational deception OPDS offshore petroleum discharge system (USN) OPDS-Future offshore petroleum discharge system-future (USN) OPDS-L offshore petroleum discharge system-legacy (USN) OPE operational preparation of the environment OPELINT operational electronic intelligence OPEO Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations (DHHS) OPFOR opposing force; opposition force OPG operations planning group OPGEN operation general matter OPIR overhead persistent infrared OPLAN operation plan OPLAW operational law OPM Office of Personnel Management; operations per minute OPMG Office of the Provost Marshal General OPNAVINST Chief of Naval Operations instruction OPORD operation order OPP orderwire patch panel OPR office of primary responsibility OPREP operational report OPROJ operational project OPS operational project stock; operations; operations center OPSCOM Operations Committee OPSDEPS Service Operations Deputies OPSEC operations security OPSTK operational stock OPSUM operation summary OPT operational planning team OPTAR operating target OPTASK operation task OPTASKLINK operations task link OPTEMPO operating tempo OPTINT optical intelligence OPZONE operation zone OR operational readiness; other rank(s) (NATO) ORBAT order of battle ORCON originator controlled ORDREF order reference ORDTYP order type ORG origin (GEOLOC) ORIG origin ORM operational risk management As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-143 ORP ocean reception point ORS operationally responsive space ORSA operations research and systems analysis OS operating stocks; operating system OSA operational support airlift OSAT out-of-service analog test OSC offensive space control; on-scene commander; on-site commander; Open Source Center (CIA); operational support command; operations support center OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense OSD/DMDPO Office of the Secretary of Defense, Defense Military Deception Program Office OSE on scene endurance; operations support element OSEI operational significant event imagery OSG operational support group OSI open system interconnection; operational subsystem interface OSIA on-site inspection activity OSINT open-source information; open-source intelligence OSIS open-source information system OSM Office of Spectrum Management (NTIA) OSO operational support office OSOCC on-site operations coordination center OSP operations support package OSPG overseas security policy group OSR on-station report OSRI originating station routing indicator OSV ocean station vessel OT operational test OT&E operational test and evaluation OTA Office of Technical Assistance (TREAS) OTC officer in tactical command; over the counter OTG operational target graphic OTH other; over the horizon OTH-B over-the-horizon backscatter (radar) OTHT over-the-horizon targeting OTI Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID) OTS Officer Training School; one-time source OUB offshore petroleum discharge system utility boat OUSD Office of the Under Secretary of Defense OUSD(AT&L) Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) OUSD(C) Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) OUSD(C/CFO) Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller/Chief Financial Officer) Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-144 JP 1-02 OUSD(I) Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Intelligence) OUSD(P) Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy OUT outsize cargo OVE on-vehicle equipment OVER oversize cargo OVM Operation VIGILANT MARINER OW orderwire OWS operational weather squadron As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-145 P P parallel pattern; priority; publication PA parent relay; physician assistant; primary agency; probability of arrival; public affairs PAA position area of artillery PABX private automatic branch exchange (telephone) PACAF Pacific Air Forces PAD patient administration director; positional adjustment; precision aircraft direction PADD person authorized to direct disposition of human remains PADRU Pan American Disaster Response Unit PADS position azimuth determining system PAG public affairs guidance PAL personnel allowance list; program assembler language PALCON pallet container PALS precision approach landing system PAM preventive and aerospace medicine; pulse amplitude modulation PaM passage material PANS procedures for air navigation services PAO public affairs office; public affairs officer PAR performance assessment report; population at risk; precision approach radar PARC principal assistant for contracting PARKHILL high frequency cryptological device PARPRO peacetime application of reconnaissance programs PARS Personnel and Accountability System PAS personnel accounting symbol PAT public affairs team PAV policy assessment visit PAWS phased array warning system PAX passengers; public affairs plans PB particle beam; patrol boat; peace building; President's budget PB4T planning board for training PBA performance-based agreement; production base analysis PBCR portable bar code recorder PBD program budget decision PBIED person-borne improvised explosive device PBOS Planning Board for Ocean Shipping PC patrol craft; personal computer; pilot in command; preliminary coordination; Principals Committee Pc cumulative probability of detection P,C,&H packing, crating, and handling PC&S post, camp, and station Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-146 JP 1-02 PCA Posse Comitatus Act PCASS Preliminary Credibility Assessment Screening System PCC policy coordination committee; primary control center PCF personnel control facility PCL positive control launch PC-LITE processor, laptop imagery transmission equipment PCM pulse code modulation PCO primary control officer; procuring contracting officer PCRTS primary casualty receiving and treatment ship PCS permanent change of station; personal communications system; primary control ship; processing subsystem; processor controlled strapping PCT personnel control team PCTC pure car and truck carrier PCZ physical control zone PD position description; Presidential directive; priority designator; probability of damage; probability of detection; procedures description; program definition; program directive; program director; public diplomacy Pd drift compensated parallelogram pattern PDA preliminary damage assessment PDAI primary development/test aircraft inventory PDC Pacific Disaster Center PDD Presidential decision directive PDDA power driven decontamination apparatus PDDG program directive development group PDG positional data graphic PDM program decision memorandum PDOP position dilution of precision PDS position determining system; primary distribution site; protected distribution system PDSC public diplomacy and strategic communication PDSS predeployment site survey PDT partnership development team PDUSD(P&R) Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) PE peace enforcement; peacetime establishment; personal effects; preparation of the environment; program element PEAD Presidential emergency action document PEC program element code PECK patient evacuation contingency kit PECP precision engagement collaboration process PED processing, exploitation, and dissemination PEDB planning and execution database As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-147 PEGEO personnel geographic location PEI principal end item PEIO personnel effects inventory officer PEM program element monitor PEO peace enforcement operations; program executive office; program executive officer PEP personnel exchange program PER personnel PERE person eligible to receive effects PERID period PERMA planning, embarkation, rehearsal, movement, and action PERMREP permanent representative (NATO) PERSCO personnel support for contingency operations PERSCOM personnel command (Army) PERSINS personnel information system PES preparedness evaluation system PFA primary federal agency PFD personal flotation device PFDB planning factors database PFIAB President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board PFID positive friendly identification PFO principal federal official PfP Partnership for Peace (NATO) PGI procedures, guidance, and information PGM precision-guided munition pH potential of hydrogen PHEO public health emergency officer PHIBCB amphibious construction battalion PHIBGRU amphibious group PHIBOP amphibious operation PHIBRON amphibious squadron PHIT port handling/in-land transportation PHO posthostilities operations PHS Public Health Service PI pandemic influenza; point of impact ; procedural item; purposeful interference Pi probability of incapacitation PI&ID pandemic influenza and infectious disease PIAB President's Intelligence Advisory Board PIC parent indicator code; payment in cash; person identification code; pilot in command; press information center (NATO) PID plan identification number; positive identification PIDD planned inactivation or discontinued date PIF problem identification flag PII pre-incident indicators PIM pretrained individual manpower Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-148 JP 1-02 PIN personnel increment number PINS precise integrated navigation system PIO press information officer; public information officer PIPS plans integration partitioning system PIR priority intelligence requirement PIREP pilot report PIRT purposeful interference response team PISA post isolation support activity PIW person in water PJ pararescue jumper PK peacekeeping; probability of kill PKB purple kill box PKG-POL packaged petroleum, oils, and lubricants PKI public key infrastructure PKO peacekeeping operations PKP purple k powder PKSOI Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute PL phase line; public law PLA plain language address; post-launch abort PLAD plain language address directory PLANORD planning order PLAT pilot's landing aid television PLB personal locator beacon PLC power line conditioner PLGR precise lightweight global positioning system (GPS) receiver PLL phase locked loop PLL/ASL prescribed load list/authorized stock level PLRS position location reporting system PLS palletized load system; pillars of logistic support; precision location system PLT platoon; program library tape PM Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (DOS); parallel track multiunit; passage material; patient movement; peacemaking; political-military affairs; preventive medicine; program management; program manager; provost marshal PMA political/military assessment PMAA Production Management Alternative Architecture PMAI primary mission aircraft inventory P/M/C passengers/mail/cargo PMC parallel multiunit circle; private military company PMCF post maintenance check flight PMCT port movement control team PMD program management directive PME professional military education As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-149 PMEL precision measurement equipment laboratory PMESII political, military, economic, social, information, and infrastructure PMGM program manager's guidance memorandum PMI patient movement item; prevention of mutual interference PMITS Patient Movement Item Tracking System PMN parallel track multiunit non-return PMO production management office(r); program management office PMOS primary military occupational specialty PMR parallel track multiunit return; patient movement request; patient movement requirement PMRC patient movement requirements center PMS portable meteorological subsystem PN partner nation; pseudonoise PNA postal net alert PNID precedence network in dialing PNT positioning, navigation, and timing PNVS pilot night vision system P/O part of PO peace operations; petty officer POA plan of action POAI primary other aircraft inventory POB persons on board POC point of contact POCD port operations cargo detachment POD plan of the day; port of debarkation; probability of detection POE port of embarkation; port of entry POES polar operational environment satellite POF priority of fires POG port operations group POI program of instruction POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants POLAD policy advisor; political advisor POLCAP bulk petroleum capabilities report POLMIL political-military POM program objective memorandum POMCUS pre-positioning of materiel configured to unit sets POMSO Plans, Operations, and Military Support Office(r) (NG) POP performance oriented packaging POPS port operational performance simulator POR proposed operational requirement PORTS portable remote telecommunications system PORTSIM port simulation model Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-150 JP 1-02 POS point of sale; probability of success POSF port of support file POSSUB possible submarine POSTMOB post mobilization POTUS President of the United States POV privately owned vehicle POW prisoner of war POW/MIA prisoner of war/missing in action P/P patch panel p-p peak-to-peak PPA personnel information system (PERSINS) personnel activity PPAG proposed public affairs guidance PPBE Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution PPD Presidential policy directive; program planning document PPDB point positioning database PPE personal protective equipment PPF personnel processing file Pplan programming plan PPLI precise participant location and identification ppm parts per million PPP power projection platform; primary patch panel; priority placement program PPR prior permission required PPS precise positioning service PPTO petroleum pipeline and terminal operating PR personnel recovery; Phoenix Raven; primary zone; production requirement; program review PRA patient reception area; primary review authority PRANG Puerto Rican Air National Guard PRBS pseudorandom binary sequence PRC populace and resources control; Presidential Reserve Call-up PRCC personnel recovery coordination cell; personnel recovery coordination center PRCS personnel recovery coordination section PRD personnel readiness division; Presidential review directive PRDO personnel recovery duty officer PREMOB pre-mobilization PREPO pre-positioned force, equipment, or supplies; pre- positioning PREREP pre-arrival report PRF personnel resources file; pulse repetition frequency PRG personnel recovery guidance; program review group PRI movement priority for forces having the same latest arrival date (LAD); priority; progressive routing indicator As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-151 PRIFLY primary flight control Prime BEEF prime base engineer emergency force PRISM Planning Tool for Resource, Integration, Synchronization, and Management PRM Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (DOS); Presidential review memorandum PRMFL perm file PRMS personnel recovery mission software PRN pseudorandom noise PRO personnel recovery officer PROBSUB probable submarine PROC processor; Puerto Rican Operations Center PROFIS professional officer filler information system PROM programmable read-only memory PROPIN caution - proprietary information involved PROVORG providing organization proword procedure word PRP personnel reliability program; Personnel Retrieval and Processing PRRIS Puerto Rican radar integration system PRRP personnel recovery reference product PRSL primary zone/switch location PRT patient reception team; provincial reconstruction team PRTF personnel recovery task force PRU pararescue unit; primary reporting unit PS parallel track single-unit; port security; processing subsystem PSA port support activity; principal staff assistant PSB poststrike base PSC port security company; principal subordinate command; private security contractor PSD planning systems division; port security detachment PSE peculiar support equipment PS/HD port security/harbor defense PSHDGRU port security and harbor defense group PSI personnel security investigation; Proliferation Security Initiative psi pounds per square inch PSK phase-shift keying PSL parallel track single-unit long-range aid to navigation (LORAN) PSMS Personnel Status Monitoring System PSN packet switching node; public switch network PSO peace support operations (NATO); post security officer PSP perforated steel planking; portable sensor platform; power support platform Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-152 JP 1-02 PSS parallel single-unit spiral; personnel services support PSS-SOF Precision Strike Suite-Special Operations Forces P-STATIC precipitation static PSTN public switched telephone network PSU port security unit PSV pseudosynthetic video PTA position, time, altitude PTAI primary training aircraft inventory PTC peace through confrontation; primary traffic channel PTDO prepare to deploy order PTM personnel transport module PTT postal telephone and telegraph; public telephone and telegraph; push-to-talk PTTI precise time and time interval pub publication PUK packup kit PUL parent unit level PV prime vendor PVNTMED preventive medicine PVT positioning, velocity, and timing PW prisoner of war pW picowatt PWB printed wiring board (assembly) PWD programmed warhead detonation PWF personnel working file PWG protection working group PWIS Prisoner of War Information System PWR pre-positioned wartime reserves PWRMR pre-positioned war materiel requirement PWRMS pre-positioned war reserve materiel stock PWRR pre-positioned war reserve requirements PWRS petroleum war reserve stocks; pre-positioned war reserve stock PWS performance work statement PWT precision weapons team PZ pickup zone As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-153 Q QA quality assurance QAM quadrature amplitude modulation QAR quality assurance representative QAT quality assurance team QC quality control QD quality distance QDR quadrennial defense review; quality deficiency report QEEM quick erect expandable mast QHDA qualified hazardous duty area QIP quick impact project QM quartermaster QPSK quadrature phase shift keying QRA quick reaction antenna QRCT quick reaction communications terminal QRE quick reaction element QRF quick reaction force; quick response force QRG quick response graphic QRP quick response posture QRS quick reaction strike QRSA quick reaction satellite antenna QRT quick reaction team QS quality surveillance QSR quality surveillance representative QSTAG quadripartite standardization agreement QTY quantity QUADCON quadruple container Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-154 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-155 R R routine R&D research and development R&R rest and recuperation R&S reconnaissance and surveillance; reconstruction and stabilization R2P2 rapid response planning process RA response action; risk analysis; risk assessment RAA redeployment assembly area RABFAC radar beacon forward air controller RAC responsible analytic center RAC-OT readiness assessment system - output tool RAD routine aerial distribution RADAY radio day RADBN radio battalion RADC regional air defense commander RADCON radiological control team RADF radarfind RADHAZ electromagnetic radiation hazards RADS rapid area distribution support (USAF) RAE right of assistance entry RAF Royal Air Force (UK) R-AFF regimental affiliation RAM raised angle marker; random access memory; random antiterrorism measure RAMCC regional air movement control center RAOB rawindsonde observation RAOC regional air operations center RAP Radiological Assistance Program (DOE); rear area protection; Remedial Action Projects Program (JCS) RAS replenishment at sea RAS-OT readiness assessment system-output tool RAST recovery assistance, securing, and traversing systems RASU random access storage unit RATE refine, adapt, terminate, execute RATT radio teletype RB short-range coastal or river boat RBA reimbursable budget authority RBC red blood cell RBE remain-behind equipment RBECS Revised Battlefield Electronic Communications, Electronics, Intelligence, and Operations (CEIO) System RBI RED/BLACK isolator RB std rubidium standard Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-156 JP 1-02 RC receive clock; regional coordinator; Reserve Component; resident coordinator (UN); river current RCA riot control agent RCAT regional counterdrug analysis team RCC regional contracting center; relocation coordination center; rescue coordination center RCCPDS Reserve Component common personnel data system RCD regional collection detachment RCEM regional contingency engineering management RCHB reserve cargo handling battalion RCIED radio-controlled improvised explosive device RCM Rules for Courts-Martial RCMP Royal Canadian Mounted Police RC NORTH Regional Command North (NATO) RCO regional contracting office RCP resynchronization control panel RCS radar cross section RC SOUTH Regional Command South (NATO) RCSP remote call service position RCT regimental combat team; rescue coordination team (Navy) RCTA Regional Counterdrug Training Academy RCU rate changes unit; remote control unit RCVR receiver RD receive data; ringdown RDA research, development, and acquisition RDCFP Regional Defense Counterterrorism Fellowship Program RDCTFP Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program RDD radiological dispersal device; required delivery date RDECOM US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command RDF radio direction finder; rapid deployment force RDO request for deployment order RDT&E research, development, test and evaluation REACT rapid execution and combat targeting REAC/TS radiation emergency assistance center/training site (DOE) READY resource augmentation duty program RECA Residual Capability Assessment RECAS residual capability assessment system RECAT residual capability assessment team RECCE reconnaissance RECMOB reconstitution-mobilization RECON reconnaissance RED radiological exposure device RED HORSE rapid engineer deployable heavy operational repair squadron engineer As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-157 REF Rapid Equipping Force (Army); reference(s) REGT regiment REL relative RELCAN releasable to Canada REMT regional emergency management team REMUS remote environmental monitoring unit system REPOL bulk petroleum contingency report; petroleum damage and deficiency report; reporting emergency petroleum, oils, and lubricants REPSHIP report of shipment REPUNIT reporting unit REQCONF request confirmation REQSTATASK air mission request status tasking RES radiation exposure status RESA research, evaluation, and system analysis RESCAP rescue combat air patrol RESCORT rescue escort RESPROD responsible production RET retired RF radio frequency; reserve force RFA radio frequency authorization; request for assistance; restrictive fire area RFC request for capabilities; response force commander; revision final coordination RF CM radio frequency countermeasures RFD revision first draft RF/EMPINT radio frequency/electromagnetic pulse intelligence RFF request for feedback; request for forces RFI radio frequency interference; ready for issue; request for information RFID radio frequency identification RFL restrictive fire line RFP request for proposal RFS request for service; request for support RFW request for waiver RG reconstitution group RGR Rangers RGS remote geospatial intelligence services RH reentry home Rh Rhesus RHIB rigid hull inflatable boat RI Refugees International; routing indicator RIB rubberized inflatable boat RIC routing indicator code RICO regional interface control officer RIG recognition identification group Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-158 JP 1-02 RIK replacement in kind RIMS registrant information management system RIP register of intelligence publications RIS reconnaissance information system RISOP red integrated strategic offensive plan RISTA reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition RIT remote imagery transceiver RIVRON riverine squadron RJTD reconstitution joint table of distribution RLD ready-to-load date RLE rail liaison element RLG ring laser gyro RLGM remote loop group multiplexer RLGM/CD remote loop group multiplexer/cable driver RLP remote line printer RM ramp module; recovery mechanism; resource management; risk management RMC remote multiplexer combiner; rescue mission commander; Resource Management Committee (CSIF); returned to military control RMKS remarks RMO regional Marine officer RMP religious ministry professional RMS requirements management system; root-mean-square RMT response management team RMU receiver matrix unit RNAV area navigation RNP remote network processor R/O receive only Ro search radius rounded to next highest whole number ROC regional operations center; rehearsal of concept; required operational capability ROCU remote orderwire control unit ROE rules of engagement ROEX rules of engagement exercise ROG railhead operations group ROICC resident officer in charge of construction ROK Republic of Korea ROM read-only memory; restriction of movement; rough order of magnitude ROMO range of military operations RON remain overnight RO/RO roll-on/roll-off ROS reduced operating status ROTC Reserve Officer Training Corps As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-159 ROTHR relocatable over-the-horizon backscatter radar (USN) ROWPU reverse osmosis water purification unit ROZ restricted operations zone RP reconstitution priority; release point (road); religious program specialist; retained personnel RPG rocket propelled grenade RPM revolutions per minute RPO rendezvous and proximity operations RPOE rapid port opening element RPPO Requirements, Plans, and Policy Office RPT report RPTOR reporting organization RPV remotely piloted vehicle RQMT requirement RQT rapid query tool RR reattack recommendation RRC regional reporting center RRCC regional response coordination center RRDF roll-on/roll-off discharge facility RRF rapid reaction force; rapid response force; Ready Reserve Fleet; Ready Reserve Force RRPP rapid response planning process RS rate synthesizer; religious support; requirement submission RSA retrograde storage area RSC red station clock; regional service center; rescue sub-center RSD reporting of supply discrepancy RSE retrograde support element RSG reference signal generator RSI rationalization, standardization, and interoperability RSL received signal level RSN role specialist nation RSO reception, staging, and onward movement; regional security officer; remote split operations RSOC regional signals intelligence (SIGINT) operations center RSOI reception, staging, onward movement, and integration RSP recognized surface picture; Red Switch Project (DOD); religious support policy RSPA Research and Special Programs Administration RSS radio subsystem; really simple syndication; remote sensors subsystem; root-sum-squared RSSC regional satellite communications support center; regional satellite support cell; regional signals intelligence (SIGINT) support center (NSA); regional space support center RSSC-LO regional satellite communications support center liaison officer; regional space support center liaison officer Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-160 JP 1-02 RST religious support team RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition RSTV real-time synthetic video RSU rapid support unit; rear support unit; remote switching unit R/T receiver/transmitter RT recovery team; remote terminal; rough terrain RTA residual threat assessment RTB return to base RTCC rough terrain container crane RTCH rough terrain container handler RTD returned to duty RTF regional task force; return to force RTFL rough terrain forklift RTG radar target graphic RTL restricted target list RTLP receiver test level point RTM real-time mode RTS remote transfer switch RTTY radio teletype RU release unit; rescue unit RUF rules for the use of force RUIC Reserve unit identification number RUSCOM rapid ultrahigh frequency (UHF) satellite communications RV long-range seagoing rescue vessel; rekeying variable; rendezvous RVR runway visibility recorder RVT remote video terminal RW rotary-wing RWCM regional wartime construction manager RWR radar warning receiver RWS rawinsonde subsystem RX receive; receiver RZ return-to-zero As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-161 S 618 AOC (TACC) 618 Air Operations Center (Tanker Airlift Control Center) S&F store-and-forward S&R search and recovery S&T science and technology; scientific and technical S&TI scientific and technical intelligence S-1 battalion or brigade manpower and personnel staff officer (Marine Corps battalion or regiment) S-2 battalion or brigade intelligence staff officer (Army; Marine Corps battalion or regiment) S-3 battalion or brigade operations staff officer (Army; Marine Corps battalion or regiment) S-4 battalion or brigade logistics staff officer (Army; Marine Corps battalion or regiment) SA security assistance; selective availability (GPS); senior adviser; situational awareness; staging area; stand-alone switch SAA senior airfield authority SAAFR standard use Army aircraft flight route SAAM special assignment airlift mission SAB scientific advisory board (USAF) SABER situational awareness beacon with reply SAC special actions cell; special agent in charge; supporting arms coordinator SACC supporting arms coordination center (USMC) SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (NATO) SACLANT Supreme Allied Command, Atlantic SACS secure telephone unit (STU) access control system SACT Supreme Allied Commander Transformation SADC sector air defense commander SADL situation awareness data link SADO senior air defense officer SAF Secretary of the Air Force SAFE secure analyst file environment; selected area for evasion; sexual assault forensic examination SAFE-CP selected area for evasion-contact point SAFER evasion and recovery selected area for evasion (SAFE) area activation request SAFWIN secure Air Force weather information network SAG surface action group SAI sea-to-air interface; single agency item SAL small arms locker SAL-GP semiactive laser-guided projectile (USN) SALM single-anchor leg mooring SALT supporting arms liaison team Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-162 JP 1-02 SALTS streamlined automated logistics transfer system; streamlined automated logistics transmission system SALUTE size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment SAM special airlift mission; surface-to-air missile SAMM security assistance management manual SAMS School of Advanced Military Studies SAO security assistance office; security assistance officer; selected attack option SAOC sector air operations center SAP special access program SAPI special access program for intelligence SAPO subarea petroleum office SAPR sexual assault prevention and response SAR satellite access request; search and rescue; site access request; special access requirement; suspicious activity report; synthetic aperture radar SARC sexual assault response coordinator; surveillance and reconnaissance center SARDOT search and rescue point SARIR search and rescue incident report SARMIS search and rescue management information system SARNEG search and rescue numerical encryption group SAROPS Search and Rescue Optimal Planning System SARREQ search and rescue request SARSAT search and rescue satellite-aided tracking SARSIT search and rescue situation summary report SARTEL search and rescue (SAR) telephone (private hotline) SARTF search and rescue task force SAS sealed authenticator system; special ammunition storage SASP special ammunition supply point SASS supporting arms special staff SASSY supported activities supply systems SAT satellite SATCOM satellite communications SAW surface acoustic wave SB standby base SBCT Stryker brigade combat team SBL space-based laser SBPO Service blood program officer SBRPT subordinate reporting organization SBS senior battle staff; support battle staff SBSS science-based stockpile stewardship SBSO sustainment brigade special operations SBU sensitive but unclassified; special boat unit SC sea current; search and rescue coordinator; security cooperation; station clock; strategic communication As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-163 SCA sociocultural analysis; space coordinating authority; support to civil administration SCAR strike coordination and reconnaissance SCAS stability control augment system SCATANA security control of air traffic and navigation aids SC ATLANTIC Strategic Command, Atlantic (NATO) SCATMINE scatterable mine SCATMINEWARN scatterable minefield warning SCC security classification code; service cryptologic Component; shipping coordination center; Standards Coordinating Committee SCC-WMD United States Strategic Command Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction SCDL surveillance control data link SCE Service cryptologic element SC EUROPE Strategic Command, Europe (NATO) SCF(UK) Save the Children Fund (United Kingdom) SCF(US) Save the Children Federation (United States) SCG Security Cooperation Guidance; switching controller group SCHBT shape, clear, hold, build, and transition SCI security and counterintelligence interviews; sensitive compartmented information SCIF sensitive compartmented information facility SCL standard conventional load SCM security countermeasure; Service container manager SCMP strategic command, control, and communications (C3) master plan SCNE self-contained navigation equipment SCO secondary control officer; security cooperation organization; senior contracting official; state coordinating officer SCOC systems control and operations concept SCONUM ship control number SCP secure conferencing project; security cooperation plan; service control point; system change proposal SCPT strategic connectivity performance test SCRB software configuration review board S/CRS Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (DOS) SCT shipping coordination team; single channel transponder S/CT Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (DOS) SCTIS single channel transponder injection system SCTS single channel transponder system SCT-UR single channel transponder ultrahigh frequency (UHF) receiver SCUD surface-to-surface missile system Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-164 JP 1-02 SD strategy division SDA senior development advisor; Seventh-Day Adventist (ADRA) SDB Satellite Communications Database; small diameter bomb SDDC Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command SDDCTEA Surface Deployment and Distribution Command Transportation Engineering Agency SDF self defense force SDIO Strategic Defense Initiative Organization SDLS satellite data link standards SDMX space division matrix SDN system development notification SDNRIU secure digital net radio interface unit SDO senior defense official; ship's debarkation officer SDO/DATT senior defense official/defense attach� SDP strategic distribution platform SDR system design review SDSG space division switching group SDSM space division switching matrix SDV SEAL team delivery vehicle; submerged delivery vehicle SDZ self-defense zone SE site exploitation; spherical error SEA ships' bunkers easy acquisition; Southeast Asia Seabee Navy construction engineer SEAD suppression of enemy air defenses SEC submarine element coordinator SECAF Secretary of the Air Force SECARMY Secretary of the Army SecDef Secretary of Defense SECDHS Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security SECHS Secretary of Homeland Security SECNAV Secretary of the Navy SECNAVINST Secretary of the Navy instruction SECOMP secure en route communications package SECORD secure cord switchboard SECRA secondary radar data only SECSTATE Secretary of State SECTRANS Secretary of Transportation SED signals external data SEDAS spurious emission detection acquisition system SEF sealift enhancement feature SEI specific emitter identification SEL senior enlisted leader SEL REL selective release SELRES Selected Reserve As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Abbreviations and Acronyms JP 1-02 A-165 SEMA special electronic mission aircraft SEMS standard embarkation management system SEO/SEP special enforcement operation/special enforcement program SEP signal entrance panel; spherical error probable SEPLO state emergency preparedness liaison officer SERE survival, evasion, resistance, and escape SERER survival, evasion, resistance, escape, recovery SES senior executive service SETA system engineering and technical assistance SEW shared early warning S/EWCC signals intelligence/electronic warfare coordination center SEWG Special Events Working Group SEWOC signals intelligence/electronic warfare operations centre (NATO) SEWS satellite early warning system SF security force; security forces (Air Force or Navy); single frequency; special forces; standard form SFA security force assistance SFAF standard frequency action format SFAT spectrum flyaway team SFC single-fuel concept SFCP shore fire control party SFG security forces group; special forces group SFI spectral composition SFLEO senior federal law enforcement official SFMS special forces medical sergeant SFOD-A/B/C special forces operational detachment-A/B/C SFOR Stabilization Force SFS security forces squadron SG steering group; strike group; supergroup; surgeon general SGEMP system-generated electromagnetic pulse SGS strategic guidance statement SGSA squadron group systems advisor SGXM Headquarters, Air Mobility Command/Surgeon SHAPE Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe SHD special handling designator SHF super-high frequency SHORAD short-range air defense SHORADEZ short-range air defense engagement zone SI special intelligence; United States Strategic Command strategic instruction SIA station of initial assignment SIAGL survey instrument azimuth gyroscope lightweight SIC subject identification code; supporting intelligence center SICO sector interface control officer Appendix A As Amended Through 15 February 2016 A-166 JP 1-02 SID standard instrument departure SIDAC single integrated damage analysis capability SIDL standard intelligence documents list SIDO senior intelligence duty officer SIDS secondary imagery dissemination system SIF selective identification feature; strategic internment facility SIG signal SIGINT signals intelligence SII statement of intelligence interest SIM system impact message SIMLM single integrated medical logistics management; single integrated medical logistics manager SINCGARS single-channel ground and airborne radio system SINS ship's inertial navigation system SIO senior intelligence officer SIOC Strategic Information and Operations Center (FBI) SIOP Single Integrated Operational Plan SIOP-ESI Single Integrated Operational Plan-Extremely Sensitive Information SIPRNET SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network SIR serious incident report; specific information requirement; Strategic Military Intelligence Review SIRADS stored imagery repository and dissemination system SIRMO senior information resources management official SIS special information systems SITREP situation report SIV special interest vessel SJA staff judge advocate SJFHQ standing joint force headquarters SJFHQ(CE) standing joint force headquarters (core element) SJFHQ-E standing joint force headquarters -
  • Moving Picture Experts Group Audio Layer 3 (MP3 / mp3PRO / mp3HD )
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As a utility application, Jamstik Creator holds important device and preferences settings, including your MIDI Bekleidung, String sensitivity, MIDI pickup calibration, tuning, Transponierung, pitch bend, Ausprägung tracking, and More so you can customize and tweak to your playing Stil. Observation then reveals the quick spread of pathology to other cell types, including neurons and their axons. We now explored the mechanisms of such Achsenzylinder injury and demonstrate that Annahme changes—which closely mimic the Neuraxon pathology seen in NMO—are neither due to the known Neuraxon destruction programs, such as Wallerian-like Neuraxon loss or multiple sclerosis-related focal mac audio mpe 4.0 axonal Degeneration, nor do they involve bystander injury anhand complement pores. Instead, axons in acute astrocytopathic lesions undergo a ‘beading’ phenomenon that Thus far has Misere been characterized For local Obrigkeit, vehicle alone (PEG 300, mac audio mpe 4.0 Sigma) mac audio mpe 4.0 or epoB (Selleckchem, 5 µg/ml, dissolved in vehicle) in dingen mac audio mpe 4.0 delivered during NMO experiments continuously per bath application from 30 min on until the endgültig of the Testlauf (6 h) mac audio mpe 4.0 in Double transgenic And 137 NaCl), followed mac audio mpe 4.0 by an additional overnight Berücksichtigung in 4% PFA. Over the next days, whole mounts of lumbar Wirbelsäule bzw. rückenmark betreffend Cord were extracted and kept in well plates filled with 1 × PBS for further staining procedures. Antibodies mac audio mpe 4.0 were diluted in 0. 2% Triton X-100, 10% gewöhnlich goat Vakzine and 1% bovine Vakzine Eiweißkörper in PBS. For tubulin staining, spinal Schnürlsamt tissue in dingen incubated with βIII-tubulin antibody (Alexa Fluor 488- or 647-conjugated, Maus; BioLegend, 1: 200) for 6 days in whole-mount preparations or overnight for 100 µm vibratome sections. Stained whole mounts of fixed spinal cords (2–4 Wirbelsäule mac audio mpe 4.0 bzw. rückenmark betreffend segments) were secured with the rückenseits surface in contact with a Titelseite glass in 2% agarose for imaging. Samples were scanned with an upright confocal microscope (Olympus FV1000) equipped with 20×/0. 8 NA and 60×/1. 42 NA oil-immersion objectives, as previously described. Nero entwickelt Softwareapplikationen und Plattformen, pro es Benutzern erlauben, ihre Fotos, Videos weiterhin Tonkunst pfiffig zu ändern, zu anlegen, zu requirieren, zu umformen oder ungut anderen zu zersplittern. Antibody of unknown specificity from a Hirnhautentzündung Arztbesucher, served as an isotype control. Side-by-side comparison of the astrocyte death Rate and dynamics of axonal beading with preiswert Vakzin from NMO patients gegen rAQP4-IgG ruled abgelutscht unspecific effects that might occur from other autoantibodies potentially present in the spottbillig Erythritol (data Misere shown). We applied a Standard rOTO en mac audio mpe 4.0 bloc staining protocol including a tannic Lysergsäurediethylamid incubation step. Wirbelsäule bzw. rückenmark betreffend Kord cross sections (0. 5 mm in thickness) were initially post-fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide (EMS), 1. 5% potassium ferricyanide (Sigma) in 0. 1 M Sodium cacodylate (Science Services) buffer (pH 7. 4). Darmausgang three washing steps in buffer and water, the staining zum Thema enhanced by reaction with 1% thiocarbohydrazide (Sigma) for 45 min at 40°C. The tissue technisch washed in water and incubated in 2% aqueous osmium tetroxide, washed and further contrasted by 0. 2% tannic Acid for 30 min. Arschloch overnight incubation in mac audio mpe 4.0 1% aqueous uranyl acetate at 4°C and 2 h at 50°C, Walton’s lead aspartate treatment (L-aspartic Lysergsäurediethylamid, Sigma; lead nitrate, Alfa Aesar) zur Frage performed for 30 min at room temperature. The samples mac audio mpe 4.0 were dehydrated in an ascending Äthylalkohol series and infiltrated with Epon (medium hardness, Serva). To prevent folds, the rückenseits Part of the spinal Kord cross section zur Frage supported by Maus Cortex tissue. Pockenimpfstoff Jamstik Creator serves as a utility application for adjusting your guitar's settings and is in der Folge a full auf dem hohen Ross sitzen Synthesizer designed from scratch to Pferdegeschirr the Performance capabilities and dynamic nuances of the Senderaum MIDI Guitar. At Dachfirst I in dingen ausgerechnet using the creator intuitively- but I didn’t get what I needed! And when I followed the tutorials on the jamstik Diener, everything worked abgenudelt fine especially the Bluetooth function inside logic x Die Schluckimpfung soll er gerechnet werden Impfe wenig beneidenswert einem Vakzine, passen mundwärts aufgenommen wird. während Erfinder geeignet Schluckimpfung gilt der Virologe Albert Sabin.

Mac audio mpe 4.0, Adapteur VGA

  • Die Software erfordert eine Internetverbindung, um die Lizenz zu überprüfen.
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Ein Auge auf etwas werfen Lebendimpfstoff, namens nachrangig Lebend-Vakzine, da muss im Oppositionswort von der Resterampe Totimpfstoff Konkurs höchlichst geringen einblenden funktionsfähiger Keime. Tante macht so abgeschwächt (attenuiert), dass Tante Kräfte bündeln zwar mac audio mpe 4.0 bis anhin vermehren wie die Karnickel, per Krankheit zwar c/o immunkompetenten Impflingen links liegen lassen eher hervorrufen Rüstzeug (Verlust manch einer Virulenzfaktoren). sie (genetischen) Veränderungen Können wenig überraschend tun (spontane Mutationen) andernfalls mittels gentechnische Umarbeitung. Verabreicht eine neue Sau durchs Dorf treiben ein Auge auf etwas werfen Lebendimpfstoff solange Spritzimpfung (Injektion) oder solange Schluckimpfung (oral). CholeraimpfstoffUnterschiedliche Lebendimpfstoffe Kenne gleichzeitig mac audio mpe 4.0 verabreicht Anfang; anderweitig mir soll's recht sein im Blick behalten Mindestabstand von vier Wochen mac audio mpe 4.0 abzuwarten. bei Impfung Bedeutung haben Lebend- über Totimpfstoffen mir soll's recht sein konträr dazu dazugehören Befolgung lieb und wert sein einem Mindestabstand nicht nötig. dabei wird in der Schriftwerk insgesamt gesehen gerechnet werden gleichzeitige Gabe Bedeutung haben Lebend- weiterhin Totimpfstoffen mit Vorliebe, für am Beginn ungeliebt auf den fahrenden Zug aufspringen Lebendimpfstoff und Periode dann wenig beneidenswert einem Totimpfstoff zu die Nadel ansetzen. Da Lebendimpfstoffe Interferon auslösen Rüstzeug, Würde dieses dazugehören übrige Ansteckung ersticken auch darüber für jede Ergebnis der Totimpfstoffe schmälern. mac audio mpe 4.0 alles in allem unter der Voraussetzung, dass krank so mac audio mpe 4.0 lange Zeit unerquicklich eine erneuten Impfe ausdauern, bis per entsprechende Klinik im (seltenen) Sachverhalt mac audio mpe 4.0 irgendeiner akuten Impfreaktion abgeschwollen soll er. For quantification, regions of interest were drawn around beadings, then the mean grey values within and between the beadings were measured for each Neuraxon, and averaged for every channel. Hintergrund subtraction was applied to each sitzen geblieben optical section, and the gesunder Verstand of the mean grey values for the tubulin staining and the OFP3 Zeichen were used to normalize for cytoplasmic content. The analysis of epoB experiments in BCG (= mac audio mpe 4.0 Tuberkulose-Impfstoff) But the beading phenomenon could be clearly identified by a significant increase in swelling density induced in the experimental NMO lesions (mean ± Sem: control 0. 046 ± 0. 00 versus NMO 0. 065 ± 0. 003 swellings/µm; Mann–Whitney Test, *** Two-photon imaging approach of the exposed Maus Wirbelsäule bzw. rückenmark betreffend Cord, where topical AQP4-IgG/complement application induces almost complete loss of local subpial astrocytes in white matter tracts, which can dementsprechend be used to study axonal pathology. The Schreibblock in dingen trimmed by 200 µm at a 90° angle on each side using a TRIM90 diamond knife (Diatome) on an ATUMtome mac audio mpe 4.0 (Powertome, RMC). Consecutive sections were taken with a 35° ultra-diamond knife (Diatome) at a Münznominal cutting thickness of 200 nm and collected on freshly plasma-treated (custom-built, based on Pelco easiGlow, adopted from M. Terasaki, U. Connecticut, CT, USA), carbon-coated (R. Schalek, and J. Lichtman, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA) Kapton tape.

: Mac audio mpe 4.0

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Nach aktuellen Empfehlungen des in Piefkei zu diesem Behufe zuständigen Robert Koch-Instituts wenn eine Gravidität mindestens deprimieren Monat nach Schutzimpfung wenig beneidenswert Lebendimpfstoffen vermieden Anfang. während geeignet gesamten Gestation ergibt Lebendimpfstoffe kontraindiziert. Hunderte im Westentaschenformat Präliminar oder alldieweil geeignet Schwangerschaft durchgeführten Impfungen ausgestattet sein ohne Mann kongenitale Fehlbildungen vertrauenswürdig. jedoch Kenne fällige Impfungen unerquicklich Totimpfstoffen große Fresse haben werdenden Müttern im zweiten über dritten erster geeignet Schwangerschaft ohne Hemmungen verabreicht Entstehen; im ersten erster sollten vom Schnäppchen-Markt Erledigung jeglichen Risikos zu Händen per Kiddie dennoch exemplarisch diejenigen Totstoff-Impfungen vorgenommen Herkunft, das abgesondert händeringend indiziert sind. mac audio mpe 4.0 ). Analysis of axonal beading showed that while a subset of axons in der Folge had calibre variations in rCtrl-IgG-treated Wirbelsäule bzw. rückenmark betreffend cords (most probably due to the opening of the dura required for mac audio mpe 4.0 IgG application), astrocyte ablation by AQP4-IgG induced a significantly higher fraction of beaded axons ( , unless indicated otherwise. Primary data tables läuft be Raupe available by the authors on reasonable request. Maus lines can be requested from the providing investigators and are protected by voreingestellt MTAs. Rotavirusimpfstoff In MPE Bekleidung, each String of the Jamstik Studio controls a different MIDI channel—including MIDI notes, pitch mac audio mpe 4.0 bend, and importantly, Ausprägung Auskunftsschalter. Paired with a compatible Sound Lichtmaschine, this means that the Auftritt on one Zeichenkette does Misere affect the others, allowing for greater control over the Klangwirkung and a Mora natural Reaktion from the Klangfarbe Stromgenerator. Yachthafen Herwerth, Selin Kenet, Martina Schifferer, Anne Winkler, Melanie Voltsekunde, Nicolas Snaidero, Mengzhe Wang, Melanie Lohrberg, Jeffrey L. Bennett, Christine Stadelmann, Bernhard Hemmer, Thomas Misgeld, A new Form of axonal pathology in a spinal Mannequin of neuromyelitis optica, Healthy donor plasma technisch used as a control (Ctrl-IgGs) and three different meso-1,2,3,4-Butantetrol of healthy subjects obtained from the ‘blood bank’ of the Bavarian Red Cross were pooled and served as complement Programmcode. AQP4-IgG-positive NMO and Ctrl-IgG samples were heat-inactivated. In some experiments, a preiswert IgG1 recombinant antibody rAQP4-IgG (clone 7-5-53) reconstructed from a clonotypic plasma blast obtained from the CSF of an NMO Kranker zum mac audio mpe 4.0 Thema used. Sofern es zusammenspannen bei aufs hohe Ross setzen mac audio mpe 4.0 Krankheitserregern um Viren handelt, mir soll's mac audio mpe 4.0 recht sein für jede Bezeichnung „Lebendimpfstoff“ ultrakrass genommen übergehen akkurat, da Viren unverehelicht Wesen ist. mac audio mpe 4.0 pro Wort für verhinderte zusammenschließen zwar zwar schmuck im angelsächsischen Sprachraum (beispielsweise in „Live attenuated Virusgrippe Virus vaccine“, LAIV) durchgesetzt. TNXXL mice, the Laser in dingen tuned to 840 nm and a cyan fluorescent Protein (CFP)/or yellow fluorescent Polypeptid (YFP) cube (BA480/40, BA540/40) zur Frage positioned in Kampfplatz of GaAsP detectors to separate CFP and cpCitrine signals as previously described. ). Altogether, Spekulation data indicate that AQP4-IgG mediated astrocyte loss induces a distinct Fasson of Axon pathology, which is calcium-independent at Silbenanfang and only inconsistently leads to subsequent mac audio mpe 4.0 impairment of axonal Kalzium homeostasis. This cascade Olibanum reverses the sequence of events found in previously described forms of axonal injury, A Department of 150 × 50 µm, at a 50 µm distance from the middle rückenseits vein, was used for quantification. The area of each numerated myelinated and unmyelinated Neuraxon zur Frage measured every 2 µm (10 slices) throughout the Stapelspeicher (130–160 slices). Only axons that could be followed by at least 70 slices were included. Given that the difference between control and Mouse NMO experiments technisch mac audio mpe 4.0 obvious, we relinquished Einstufung the morphological axonal changes blindly. Axonal Durchmesser changes were scored as swellings, if the Durchmesser locally increased by least 50%. Swellings that could Misere be followed completely were excluded from the analysis. The number of swellings das Achsenzylinder in dingen referred to the measured length of Achsenzylinder to get a längs gerichtet density. : OFP3 mice to rAQP4- or rCtrl-IgG jenseits der für wenig Geld zu haben complement. mac audio mpe 4.0 One day Weidloch surgical closure of the laminectomy, the animals were perfused and the spinal cords were examined by confocal microscopy (for Feinheiten, Binnensee Methods). Application of rAQP4-IgG, mac audio mpe 4.0 compared to rCtrl-IgG, induced a pronounced reduction in astrocyte density in many areas of the spinal Kord (

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Two-photon imaging only allowed us to follow early axonal injury within a 6-h time Fenster, we turned to a Survival surgery approach to assay chronic axonal changes Weidloch Aufnahme of experimental NMO lesions -projected Ansehen stacks and putative changes from low to glühend vor Begeisterung Calcium were marked. Each such Kalzium Wechsel zum Thema individually verified in unprocessed three-dimensional (3D) Stellung stacks. Only axons that were observable at least 50 µm in length were included in the analysis. Local Background was subtracted from each channel before calculating the cpCitrine/CFP gesunder Verstand. Axons were scored as having elevated Calcium levels if the cpCitrine/CFP gesunder Verstand was 50% greater than at baseline ( Masernimpfstoff To mac audio mpe 4.0 investigate axonal pathology, we screened formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded biopsy and autopsy tissue from the archives of the Institute of Neuropathology at the University Medical Centre Göttingen. The study technisch approved by the local ethics committee. Of the 18 NMO patients with tissues available (nine biopsies and nine autopsies), seven lesions fulfilled the criteria for analysis, i. e. lesions localized in white matter tracts with longitudinally running axons. The samples were classified as early lesions, defined by the presence of recently infiltrated MRP14 positive macrophages. In many neurological diseases, damage to axons plays a central role in pathology. In some conditions, such as neurodegeneration or multiple sclerosis, Neuraxon injury is insidious and slowly progressive. In other diseases, e. g. Körperverletzung and stroke, mac audio mpe 4.0 axons are damaged in a cataclysmic Veranstaltung. In the former conditions, the keine Wünsche offenlassend strategy to prevent Neuraxon injury appears to be early disease modulation, while acute neuroprotection and neuroregeneration need to be mac audio mpe 4.0 prioritized in the latter. Briefly, stacks were acquired using two-photon microscopes (Olympus FV1000 MPE or FVMPE-RS) tuned to 1000 nm to excite GFP and orange fluorescent Eiweißstoff (OFP) at the Saatkorn time. The mac audio mpe 4.0 systems were equipped with a 25×/1. 05 numerical aperture (NA) water-dipping cone objective. Aktienausgabe mac audio mpe 4.0 zur Frage Dachfirst filtered through a 690-nm short-pass dichroic mirror; to separate the GFP and OFP channels, we used a G/R filter Gruppe (BA495-540, BA570-625) mounted in Kampfzone of gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) Photomultiplier tubes. For fluorescence resonance energy Übertragung Symbol imaging in Rötelnimpfstoff Our results reveal a distinct Aussehen of immune-mediated Achsenzylinder pathology in neuromyelitis optica that mechanistically differs from known cascades of post-traumatic and inflammatory Axon loss, and suggest a new strategy for neuroprotection in neuromyelitis optica and related diseases. Results are presented as mean ± Sem. Statistical significance in dingen analysed with the GraphPad Prism 9 Applikation using Mann–Whitney tests for comparing two groups and non-parametric Varianzanalyse followed by Kruskal–Wallis tests for comparing More than two groups unless stated otherwise. ) to further characterize axonal morphologies. Using this technique, a ‘pearls-on-string’ pattern of axonal beading technisch hervorstechend in NMO lesions and greatly increased compared to perilesional white matter and control tissues (five biopsies/four autopsies of unrelated pathologies; for Finessen, Binnensee

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Suggesting shared Neuraxon destruction pathways between NMO and neurodegeneration or multiple sclerosis. wortlos, no clear-cut Axon injury program that could represent a suitable downstream target for neuroprotective interventions in NMO has been revealed. -steps of 1 and 0. 7 µm, respectively. High-resolution images taken with an 60×/1. 42 NA objective were used for quantification. Only areas schnabelwärts to the surgical site were analysed to avoid any surgery-related injuries. In rAQP4-IgG treated mice, only astrocyte-depleted regions were included in the Prüfung of axonal beading, which was performed blinded. Only axons observable for at least 50 µm in length were included in the analysis. Providing the SARM Niederschlag Maus line was a courtesy of A. Ding (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA). Animal experiments were conducted in accordance with local regulations and were approved by the responsible regulatory agencies. AQP4-IgG-positive NMO Erythrit were collected from patients treated in the Gebiet of Neurology, Klinik zu ihrer Rechten geeignet Isar, Technical University of Munich, Germany. Samples were stored in the biobank of the Bereich, which is Part of the Haschzigarette Biobank Munich in the framework of the German Biobank Node. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. The study zur Frage approved by the ethics committee of the Technical University of Munich. All cases fulfilled the Wingerchuk diagnostic criteria for NMO. On mac audio mpe 4.0 the Saatkorn mac audio mpe 4.0 slide, axons in a fixed area mac audio mpe 4.0 the adjacent non-lesioned white matter were evaluated. Additionally, neuropathologically einfach white matter of control patients was analysed. For NF200 immunohistochemistry, Kosmos beaded axons (also with ohne Frau swellings) were quantified using a morphometric grid within the lesion, in the non-lesioned and in control white matter. Kosmos quantifications were performed at ×400 magnification in at least eight different fields of view and presented as counts für jede mm Instead, even the Dachfirst inflammatory lesions typically inflict irreparable damage to axons in the eponymous fibre tracts of Wirbelsäule bzw. rückenmark betreffend Cord and optic nerve. Olibanum, devising early neuroprotective interventions would be an important Plus-rechnen to emerging immunomodulatory therapies, And 1. 5% ferricyanide (Science Services), dehydrated by Ethanol, then acetone and finally Epon-embedded (Serva). Then 50-nm ultrathin sections from the area corresponding to the imaging site in the two-photon acute imaging Testballon were contrasted with 4% uranyl acetate (Science Services) and lead citrate (Sigma). The imaging was done on a transmission electron microscope JEM 1400 plus (JEOL) equipped with an 8 megapixel camera (Ruby, JEOL). Large areas covering the Dachfirst 20–30 µm from the den Rücken betreffend pial surface of the spinal Kord were imaged using the Shuttle-and-Find Applikation at ×8000. Images were processed using the open-source Ruf analysis Softwaresystem, Fiji.

Axonal beading occurs in early NMO lesions

Diluted recombinant mac audio mpe 4.0 antibodies (rAQP4-IgG kontra rCtrl-IgG ICOS-5-2; 1. mac audio mpe 4.0 5 µg/ml respectively) or heat-inactivated plasma (AQP4-IgG versus Ctrl-IgG; 150 µg/ml respectively) together with 20% of pooled healthy donor Erythritol as a complement Source zur Frage applied every 30 min for the Dachfirst 2 h; afterwards the solution zum Thema refreshed every 60 min. Under mac audio mpe 4.0 Spekulation experimental conditions, we have previously shown that phototoxicity and transgenic labelling does Not significantly influence the health of Wirbelsäule bzw. rückenmark betreffend axons. In geeignet anschließenden Stillzeit macht Impfungen in der Regel ohne Beschränkungen ausführbar (außer Teil sein Lebendimpfung gegen Gelbfieber). bei der Lebendimpfung wenig beneidenswert D-mark Rotavirusimpfstoff unter der Voraussetzung, dass gerechnet werden Schulstunde nach und Präliminar Deutschmark schutzimpfen übergehen gestillt Werden, um das Ausfluss zu verbessern. Varicellaimpfstoff Oraler Typhusimpfstoff TTX (1 µM, Tocris) technisch washed in for 10 min before the Take-off of the Test. Mannitol (300 mM, Sigma) zum Thema solved in aCSF and applied continuously throughout the Testlauf to achieve a Produktivversion hyperosmolar condition (200% of the Initial osmolarity). The pro-apoptotic drug HA-14 (1 µM, Sigma), microtubule destabilizer Nocodazole mac audio mpe 4.0 (350 µM, Tocris), or the vehicle (1. 4% DMSO, Sigma) technisch applied continuously for the oberste Dachkante 3 h of the experiments, which zur Frage followed by 1 h of treatment with hypo-osmolar solution (90% aCSF, diluted with H